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that not inluded in main game. but their own faction are.


Roman Slinger.


Auxiliary Picenian (Roman ally)




So, I'm pleased to show you my hypothetical reconstruction of a Picenian slinger, ca. 8th Century b.C.
Picenians lived in my Region at that time, and they were known for their skills as pirates and mercenaries. In fact, Rome hired them as allies first and auxiliaries later, and they were the only Italic population which the Romans had to deport in order to grant the pax Romana.



Auxiliary archer (Cretan) late republican.


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in borg's mod be talk about little extra units.



Rorarii were soldiers who formed the final lines, or else provided a reserve thereby, in the ancient pre-Marian Roman army. They may have been used with the triarii in battle near the final stages of fighting, since they are recorded as being located at the rear of the main battle formation. (Note that the saying "Going to the Triarii" means that something has gone to the bitter end – as in reached the final line.)

They may have been similar in role to the accensi, acting as supernumeraries and filling the places of fallen soldiers as a battle or campaign wore on, or they may have been skirmishers akin to velites as stated by Livy in Book VIII.8. Unfortunately, the evidence is so limited that it is difficult to understand what direct role the rorarii may have had, if any, in fighting. It seems most likely that they were not part of the line in the same way as triarii, principes and hastati were.







Their primary role was to police Rome and counteract roaming mobs and gangs that often haunted its streets during the Republic. The urban cohorts thus acted as a heavy duty police force, capable of riot control duties, while their contemporaries, the Vigiles, policed the streets and fought fires. As a trained paramilitary organization, the urban cohorts could, on rare occasions, go to battle if necessary. This role, however, was only called upon in dire situations. Augustus established a city police force in Rome consisting of three urban cohorts (cohortes urbanae) under a newly appointed prefect of the city.[1] By this time the gangs of Titus Annius Milo, Publius Clodius, etc. which had been used by politicians during the Republic had been eliminated, mostly due to the efforts of Pompeius Magnus and, with the founding of the Principate, had become moot since power no longer resided in the Roman Senate and elected officials.

Unlike the Vigiles, who mostly operated at night as firefighters and watchmen, members of the urban cohorts were considered legionaries, though with higher pay than the regular legions—if not quite as much as the Praetorian Guards—and tended to receive slightly higher donatives though, again, not as much as the Praetorians.[2]


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Herodortus repeatedly states that each hoplite was accompanicd by a light- armed soldier (psilos machimos), but thar the 5,000 Spartans were cach “guarded' by seven Helots, “all equipped for war”. This demonstrated cither surprising trust in the unstable underclass of conquered Messenian serfs on which their society depended or calculation that they would be less of a threat on campaign than left at home. Herodotus hardly mentions the psiloi at all in the actual fighting and uses words for them like “attendant', *servant' or *baggage-carrier” reflecting their other support functions. But they undoubtedly had a combat role. There was a separate tomb for Helot casualties at Plataea; the Helot dead at Thermopylae were said to be mistaken for Spartans by the Persians; and Pausanias (the travel writer from the 2nd century AD) mentions a tomb for the Athenian “slaves” who fought at Marathon, presumably amongst the psiloi, just as slaves rowed alongside citizens and resident aliens in the Athenian fleet. Farlier sources (Homer, Tyrtacus, Archilochus) picture light-armed mingled with heavy-armed and sheltering under their shields in the battle line. At Plataea, the psiloi would have included javelin-throwers, slingers and bowmen, and stones were widel y used as missiles, though this did not amount to long-range fighting capability that was in any way comparable to the barbarians”. They were most likely used as skirmishers, screening flanks and out in front of the hoplites before the opposing lines engaged. They then fell back to the rear or took shelter in the line to support the hoplites with missiles, passing forward replacements for broken spears, carrying back the dead and wounded and even plugging gaps with spcar and shield (Thucydides records that Y Helots fought as hoplites, armed by the state, in the Peloponnesian War). Their mobility was an asset in the pursuit of a broken enemy, and Herodotus depicts the Helots gathering up the spoils and stripping the bodies when the battle of Plataca was over. Some of the psiloi may have had light shields of wickerwork or hide, others wrapped cloaks or hides around their left arms. Missile 'specialists* probably


Resultado de imagen para helot archers


According to Herodotus, the Spartans sent 45,000 men – 5,000 Spartiates (full citizen soldiers), 5,000 other Lacodaemonian hoplites (perioeci) and 35,000 helots (seven per Spartiate).[32] This was probably the largest Spartan force ever assembled.[33] The Greek army had been reinforced by contingents of hoplites from the other Allied city-states, as shown in the table. Diodorus Siculus claims in his Bibliotheca historica that the number of the Greek troops approached one hundred thousand.[41]


Edited by Lion.Kanzen
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The Persian cavalry was crucial for conquering nations, and maintained its importance in the Achaemenid army to the last days of the Achaemenid Empire. The cavalry were separated into four groups. The chariot archers, horse cavalry, the camel cavalry, and the war elephants.

The camel cavalry was different, because the camels and sometimes the riders, were provided little protection against enemies, yet when they were offered protection, they would have spears, swords, bow, arrow, and scale armour. The camel cavalry was first introduced into the Persian army by Cyrus the Great, at the Battle of Thymbra. 


In 546 B.C., Cyrus the Great of Persia fought King Croesus of Lydia at Thymbra, a plain near Sardis (in southwestern Turkey). The Lydians, with a strong force of elite javelin-armed cavalry, outnumbered the Persians. Knowing that the Lydian horses were unfamiliar with camels, Cyrus mounted 300 Arab servants on baggage camels and posted them along his front. The camels spooked the Lydian horses, forcing the riders to dismount. Under heavy fire from Persian archers, the Lydians retreated.

871_face.jpgimage.png.6378442fd2496773599650e11f481baf.pngImagen relacionada

Resultado de imagen para seleucid camel archers2c3704c90c57b60d7c5c2f11284cab6c.jpg


During the time of the Judges, Israel was oppressed by Midian for seven years[23] until Gideon defeated Midian's armies.[24] Isaiah speaks of camels from Midian and Ephah coming to "cover your land", along with the gold and frankincense from Sheba.

For centuries the Arab tribes controlled the passages through Arabia. Deals were struck for safe passage and protection of supply lines and communication. This was vital during the Assyrians war against Egypt.

Ashurbanipal however did launch a series of successful campaigns against them, the lightly armed archers on camels were no match for the Assyrian army. The bas-reliefs telling these battles are some of the most memorable.

It is unknown whether they always fought two to a camel or not. The could have done this for raiding, where they would be able to use less camels but not diminish their fighting force. Another theory is that the reliefs show two men on each camel because the Assyrians had poisoned the water supply killing some of their mounts.

Interestingly the camels seem to have been controlled, not by reins, but by one of the riders tapping one side of the neck with a stick. Presumably you tapped whichever side you wanted the camel to turn.




Edited by Lion.Kanzen
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Resultado de imagen para seleucid camel archers


The Romans first encountered camels in battle in their war with Antiochus III of Syria. At Magnesia (190 B.C.), Antiochus deployed Arab bowmen mounted on camels along with his scythe chariots. 

Resultado de imagen para seleucid camel archers



Idumeans (descendants of Esau and Ishmael, rather than of Jacob). 

For classical writers, Idumea was an inland territory between the coastal cities of Palestine, Egypt, and Arabia that straddled important trade routes. Idumea is also frequently associated in ancient literature with palm trees, which grew in Palestine and were exported throughout the Mediterranean. In the eyes of classical authors, the Idumeans were a distinctive ethnos living in the melting pot of southern Palestine. Ancient writers emphasized the Idumeans’ ethnic and cultural connections with the Nabateans, the Phoenicians and Syrians, and, finally, the Judeans, and also indicated that a great deal of Hellenization occurred in western Idumea in an urban context.

through the territory of the Idumeans, who supported the Seleucids...


The defeat at Emmaus convinced Lysias that he must prepare for a serious and prolonged war. He accordingly assembled a new and larger army and marched with it on Judea from the south via Idumea. After several years of conflict Judah drove out his foes from Jerusalem, except for the garrison in the citadel of Acra. He purified the defiled Temple of Jerusalem and on the 25th of Kislev (December 14, 164 BCE) restored the service in the Temple. The reconsecration of the Temple became a permanent Jewish holiday, Hanukkah, which continued even after the Temple was destroyed in 70 CE. Hanukkah is still celebrated annually. The liberation of Jerusalem was the first step on the road to ultimate independence.




About Maccabeans...


Wedge driven between classes of Jews (Hellenism adopted by wealthy and learned)
Became question of revelation vs. reason 
Those who were pro-Hellenism supported Seleucids in the Ptolemy/Seleucids Conflict
Under Seleucid rule, Jews split into two groups: pro-Hellenist vs. anti-Hellenists
Pro Hellensim: Zadokkim = [wealthy, high priestly families, chief priests, land owners, aristocrats], they become the Sadducees
Anti-Hellenism: Hasidim (pious ones), they become the Pharisees.

When war against the external enemy came to an end, an internal struggle broke out between the party led by Judah and the Hellenist party. The influence of the Hellenizers all but collapsed in the wake of the Seleucid defeat. The Hellenizing High Priest Menelaus was removed from office and executed. His successor was another Hellenizer Alcimus. When Alcimus executed sixty priests who were opposed to him, he found himself in open conflict with the Maccabees. Alcimus fled from Jerusalem and went to the Seleucid king, asking for help.

Meanwhile, Demetrius I Soter, son of Seleucus IV Philopator and nephew of the late Antiochus IV Epiphanes, fled from Rome in defiance of the Roman Senate, arrived in Syria. Declaring himself the rightful king, he captured and killed Lysias and Antiochus Eupator, taking the throne. It was thus Demetrius to whom the delegation led by Alcimus, complained of the persecution of the Hellenist party in Judea. Demetrius granted Alcimus's request to be appointed High Priest under the protection of the king's army and sent to Judea an army led by Bacchides. The weaker Jewish army couldn't oppose the enemy and withdrew from Jerusalem, so Judah returned to wage guerrilla warfare. Soon after, it was necessary for the Seleucid Army to return to Antioch because of the turbulent political situation. Judah's forces returned to Jerusalem and the Seleucids dispatched another army, again led by Nicanor. In a battle near Adasa, on the 13th Adar 161 BCE, the Seleucid army was destroyed and Nicanor was killed. The annual "Day of Nicanor" was instituted to commemorate this victory.

Galatians (spearman)



Edited by Lion.Kanzen
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155, 156 and 157, APULIAN INFANTRY

5th and 4th century Apulian vase paintings show local warriors in 3 Costume similar to Oscan styles, with short tunic and broad belt. However the Apulians seern to have favoured decoracion with vertical stripes or panels, perhaps reflecting the lllyrian heritage (see figures 73-75), wore high laced boots, and sometimes favoured longer hair. Some warriors are shown bareheaded, with or wichou1 the headband of 155.

The most popular headgear was the Greek-style pitos (which was also worn, sometimes crested, in Campania). Several bronze examples have been found, but 156's tall and somewhat floppy example is clearly non-merallic, perhaps felt, as may be )562. 156b js a bronze pilos found in Apulia, decorated in Celtic style with sheet bronze horns, two wheels as a crest (compare 124a and j), and embossed with a face and two running dogs over the forehead. 156c, in Naples museum, also has sheet bronze horns but with an Italian-style stilt crest holder. Several of the 4th century Celtic incursions into Italy reached Apulia, and must be responsible for the Celtic influence seen in some Apulian armour. The Etrusco-Corinthian helmet worn by 134 and 162 was also used, and may have been developed originally, in Apulia.

Infantry are shown unarmoured, with javelins and shield, often the large round style carried by 155. This is similar to the Greek Argive shield but with a far narrower rim. It is decorated with a pattern of dots arranged in concentric circles, which may perhaps be bosses on a bronze shield-face or metal studs on a leather one. 155a, with a much broader rim, may actually be an Árgive shield. Smaller types like 155b are also seen. 155c shows the side view ofone shield as it appears on one vase, rising to a point; this may be the high point of the central rib of a small oval scutum, which would look like 155d in front view. Despite the use ofthe Argive or similar large round shields, and the Greck influence visible in body-armour and helmets, the long spear of the Greek hoplite does nor seem to have been adopted, infantry being shown with two or three throwing spears. A short sword or long straight dagger was also carried.

While body armour ís relatívely frequent in Lucanian and Campanian art, Apulian warriors always seem to be unarmoured, suggesting body armour was limited to officers and nobles. These certain!ly did use it, as several cuirasses survive. 157 is a reconstruction based on a bronze panoply from a 4th century tomb from Conversano in Peucetian territory. He has muscled cuirass, greaves, and a helmet which combines Thracian and Attic features. A bronze belt was also found in the tomb but seems impractical to wear with the cuirass. The helmet has a fine wave decoration cresting the tall skull, which matches the decoration down the sides of the cuirass. It also has sheet bronze wings with feather holders behind them, and curls of hair represented in stylised relief above the forchead. This hair decoration is characteristic of a group of similarly elaborate and expensive bronze Italian helmets, of which 157a and b are examples; both of these also have other relief decoration. Another helmet with similar curls above the forehcad, and with a wave decoration like that of 157 along its skull, which is much taller and ends in a duck's head, was recently found in Cyprus.




(1) Rasenna mercenary, Tarchuna

An inscription from Tarquinia attests to the mercenary service of one of its townsmen at Capua during the Second Punic War.
This warrior is copied from the so-called ‘Amazons Sarcophagus’ from Tarquinia, on which the decoration of each corselet is individualized,
reflecting real-life practice. One of the major differences between Greek and Etruscan linen corselets in the monuments is that the latter
are much more often decorated with painted floral and vegetal patterns.

(2) Rasenna marine, Roman fleet, Punic Wars

Etruscan marines served in the Roman fleet during the Punic Wars. The urns from Volterra which represent sailors or marines of the 3rd–1st centuries
show the use of conical felt caps (piloi) and padded or quilted garments, probably made of felt and wool (coactiles and centones). The sea-fighters
often employed axes (secures) and long, complex polearms (drepana) to cut the rigging of enemy ships when they came together for boarding actions.

(3) Aristocratic eques Marcnal Tetina; Clevsin, 225–200 BC

The last period of Etruscan armour-making shows the employment of composite armours with linen, padded and scale elements.
Richly elaborated ‘Hellenistic’ helmets seem to be represented, worn by warriors on Etruscan urns from Volterra dated around 200 BC.
These are often of the Phrygian shape, with a forward-curling extension of the dome, decorated cheek-guards, and two feather side-plumes.


There are other references around VI-V BC for Etruscans.

Edited by Lion.Kanzen
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Auxiliary troops. [east]




The helmet is not very accurated. Or with archeological evidence.

Dacian campaing. Maybe exception for cavalry.


Cretan Auxiliar [Caesarian legions - Gallic wars]


Pompeyan Miles (Soldier) 


Cools Mannheim


Resultado de imagen para coolus mannheim

TRAJAN Auxiliary calmery.


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(1) Romano-Egyptian heavily armoured cavalryman, 31 BC.

This figure is copied from part of the famous monument to a
senior naval officer of the time of Marcus Antonius, now in the
Vatican museum, and from the Mausoleum of the Titeci near
Lake Fucinus. He probably represents a member of the
kataphraktoi of the Eastern allies of Cleopatra and M. Antonius,
or perhaps even a member of their bodyguard. Note the
helmet with wide cheek-guards partly protecting the face; the
thorax stadios (‘muscled’ or anatomical) cuirass; the shield of
scutum type, and the three javelins. Hidden here, his right arm
would be covered with articulated ‘hoop’ armour.

2) Romano-Thracian cataphract; Chatalka, c. AD 75−100

The armoured cavalryman from the Chatalka burial in Bulgaria
may have worn what Arwidson calls ‘belt armour’ – a
combination of iron plates, scales and splints in the Iranian
tradition. The neck is protected by a thick iron gorget, following
the Thracian–Macedonian style; it was made in two pieces
connected by a strap, and the outer surface was originally
painted red. Surviving individual rings show that it was worn
over a separate ringmail collar. Note his magnificent masked
helmet (see reconstructions on pages 8-9). The Chatalka burial
also included a beautiful sword of Chinese type.


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(1) Osrhoenian heavy cavalry sagittarius, army of Severus Alexander; Gallia, AD 235

According to Herodian, Severus Alexander had brought with
him for his Rhine frontier campaign a large force of archers from
the East including from Osrhoene, together with Parthian deserters
and mercenaries. The horse-archers included heavy armoured units;
shooting from well beyond the range of the Germans’ weapons,
they did great execution among their unarmoured adversaries.
We have given this soldier some Roman equipment found in
north German bogs, such as the mask helmet from Thorsbjerg
and the ringmail shirt from Vimose, integrated with clothing and
fittings from Parthian and Hatrene paintings. Iconography
(e.g. synagogue painting from Dura), and graffiti suggest that
the composite bow and a quiver would have been carried slung
from the saddle behind the right leg, convenient for the right hand.

(2) Cataphractarius of Ala Firma catafractaria, army of
Maximinus Thrax; Germania, AD 235

Reconstructed from the stele of the Saluda brothers, he has rich
equipment from the Rhine area: a Mainz-Heddernheim style
helmet; bronze scale armour from Mainz; and highly decorated
greaves embossed with a representation of the god Mars, from
Speyer. His weapons and related fittings (spatha, baldric, contus)
are copied from finds around Mainz, Nydam, and the Vimose
bogs, where a lot of captured Roman equipment relating to the
campaigns of Severus Alexander and Maximinus was found. The
armour of his horse has been reconstructed from the lesserknown
third trapper found in Dura Europos, made of copper-alloy
scales, although the prometopidion (chamfron) is from
Heddernheim. Under it the horse wears the equine harness from
Nydam, including a brown leather muzzle with a bronze boss and
fastened with bridle-chains to the rings of the bit.

(3) Clibanarius of a Numerus Palmyrenorum; Dura Europos,
mid-3rd century AD

This ‘super-heavy’ cavalryman is reconstructed from the
famous clibanarius graffito at Dura Europos (Tower 17). Note
his conical mask helmet, and laminated armour covering
torso, legs and arms. The limb defences consisted mainly of
plates overlapping upwards, as required to throw off enemy
spears running up the left arm, unprotected by a shield.
Composite scale-and-plate armour similar to Iranian or
Palmyrene models, as portrayed in the graffito, covers the
trunk. Thigh protection was often associated with greaves,
and was found at Dura made of copper alloy and lined with
linen. His mount is stronger than the usual Arab breeds, and is
protected by the iron-scale trapper – described in the text as
number (2) – found at Dura.




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Resultado de imagen para Greek Tessarakonteres


Speculative illustration of the Tessarakonteres with catamaran hulls, as Casson suggests

As a catamaran of two "twentys" with 4,000 oarsmen, there would be 2,000 per hull and therefore 1,000 per side. The 130m length would allow ample room for the 50 vertical sections of three oars each, with each vertical section accommodating 20 rowers (hence the designation "twenty"). Thus there would be 150 oars per side. Casson has suggested that it was possible that the two internal sides were not equipped with oars and that the rowers there acted as reserve crew for those on the outer side, so the "forty" would have had either 300 or 600 oars.[16]


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2 hours ago, Alexandermb said:

OMG finally a good reference for theban fireraiser:

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lol, pretty much how the current model looks.

1 hour ago, Thorfinn the Shallow Minded said:

It's a tad ironic that the Spartans are the ones using it.

In DE both the Thebans and Spartans have the Fire Raiser.

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