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Everything posted by Sundiata

  1. I'll just copy-past this response from another recent thread, + few additions:
  2. "This stone fragment was made in ancient Egypt during the first few centuries it was under Roman occupation (30 BCE-641 CE). The fragment shows a dignitary or foreign emissary from Meroe, which flourished to Egypt's south from 800 BCE to 350 CE. (Musée du Cinquantenaire, Brussels)" https://www.ancient.eu/image/7607/fragment-of-a-dignitary-from-meroe/
  3. Hmmm, I don't think silence means consent. Thracians with both "traditional" as well as Odryssian Kingdom references is perfect in my opinion, as they coexisted. Stone and wood is good. But the stones should actually be well cut in the Hellenistic inspired structures. But most Thracian architecture wasn't Greek style cut stone. Thrace was relatively densely populated, and sites like Seuthopolis and Helis (isn't that one Getic?), definitely represent a fractional amount of the population. So indeed, good references for elite structures, but not for the rest. But t
  4. I recently came across a very rare photograph of a decorative Meroitic period stone cut window featuring some kind of figurative lattice work, from Qasr Ibrim, which was in itself a pretty interesting architectural feature that I was unaware of. It's is a figure of a man, carrying an elephant on his shoulders, comparable to a mural from the royal city in Meroë, with noticeable Hellenistic influence and possibly represeting a Nubianized Heracles: The mural from Meroë? More cool shots of Qasr Ibrim:
  5. @Genava55, @Abdominin, they might just be Roman artillery bolts... https://issuu.com/sudarchrs/docs/s_n10_wilkins
  6. . Very interesting... Do you have a screenshot of the page or link? I can't immediately find a free copy. The context is important, because Qasr Ibrim has a very long occupation date, from the 8th century BC at least, up to the the 19th century. Ballana Phase is associated with Nobatia, and is post-Meroitic. For at least 5 years, 27 - 22 BC. After this, the region reverted to Meroitic control, though a Roman trade presence continued. A lot of the excavated objects from Qasr Ibrim can be dated quite securely though, based on which graves they were excavated from, which i
  7. Definitely, there was a lot of Hellenization in Thrace, especially the Odryssian Kingdom, but I don't feel like going full Hellenistic is the right choice. It's my impression that outside of a few royal centres, Hellenistic modes of living weren't as pervasive as you'd expect from truly Hellenistic states. Hellenistic influence seems to be much more of an elite thing, hence it's relevance for elite structures, but Thracians weren't highly urbanized and these Hellenistic style displays of wealth and power probably aren't representative for all of Thrace. So I'd propose of mix of rural Thracian
  8. I take responsibility for that. I've been very inactive, both here on the forums and on social media the last couple of months because of other engagements and, personal reasons... In fact, I even owe you a PM response which I've neglected and apologize for. Expect more activity and engagement in the near future. But there's no reason for anyone to think that the project is dead. As the project develops, demands and expectations grow, and Alpha 23 and Alpha 24 have been very demanding on everyone involved in development. But a lot of work really does go on, a lot of work that's difficult
  9. Some more general views, and details from Persepolis:
  10. For the (Han) Chinese, see the mod Terra Magna, available through the in-game mod-downloader. https://0ad.mod.io/terra-magna For the Byzantines, see the mod Millennium AD, also available through the in-game mod-downloader. https://0ad.mod.io/millennium-ad For the Etruscans, there's already a small reference thread: They're pretty cool, and definitely fit 0AD's timeframe. But development of this civ is honestly still a long way off, in the best scenario. The Hittites and Minoans are Bronze Age civs that predate 0AD's timeframe by more than 6
  11. Sorry, my inbox was/is a mess I just read the last mail. I really hope the man is ok... What about @LordGood? Any spare time/interest in this? No problem man... I've seen it associated with Piye before myself, so it's an innocent mistake... Yeah, it might be. I think it's ok for a reference. A bit unique, which is good. For now only limited to Amanirenas. We'd need another "less-royal" chariot texture for a general chariot unit. But it would require consensus in the balance department to actually get in-game, which isn't straightforw
  12. I'm sorry to disappoint, but it's not Kushite, but Egyptian. It's from Beni Hasan, Tomb No. 17 (BH17), Oryx Nome, Middle Egypt, 11th or 12th Dynasty/First Intermediate Period. The tomb belonged to Khety, a local governor. https://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/diglit/newberry1893bd2/0116 Similar to 2 other scenes from Beni Hasan (probably depicting some kind of civil war): Definitely valuable towards understanding early Egyptian siege warfare, but not a primary reference for Kush (though some of those warriors are undoubtedly Kushite
  13. You might be right. But I can't read the hieroglyphs, let alone translate them, so I have to depend on arguing Egyptologists to provide me with a definite answer, which they haven't so far been able to do. So I'm like:
  14. This is translated as "Then a a movable tower was made against it", in other sources. & was translated as "A platform was built up to raise the archers as they shot arrows", in other sources. So you see, there's too much ambiguity. The Egyptologists are still arguing about it...
  15. @Abdominin, thanks. As I said, I think this is just a contentious translation. I have the same text with a different translation ("moveable tower"), and I think the two translations get mixed up. I don't have strong opinions about this. I favor the translation of a moveable tower because it has a documented precedent in Nile Valley siege warfare, but I won't definitively rule out the possibility of a battering ram either. I guess the source is just too ambiguous to have an in depth insight into what exactly this moveable wooden helper was.
  16. It also struck me, which is why I insisted on the importance of the Nuba mercs (should be renamed "Noba"), to correctly represent the diversity of the armed forces to the disposal of Kush, from peripheral tribal levies to elite, New Kingdom style and unique Meroitic age warriors. For the period relevant to 0AD, all those types would have been present, for the duration of 0AD's timeframe, with the exception of the Meroitic types which of course, would only become a thing from the 3rd century onwards. But again, this "problem" is something specific to 0AD, not the Kushites. I hone
  17. Thanks. I'd refer you back to the other thread I previously linked, but I believe the battering ram is a controversial translation of the "wooden helper" that Piye used at the siege to overcome the enemy walls, and is more commonly held to be a siege tower, which is in-game. To clarify, I do actually think they had battering rams, but there's no direct evidence that I'm aware of. I'm actually in favor of a Kushite battering ram. I think every civ should have them. I'm not familiar with the source for this. Do you mind sharing it with us?
  18. If the archaeological record doesn't support this, then what's the relevance of Herodotus passage with regard to Lower Nubia? The description is entirely in line with the populations to the South and West of Kush proper. Not with the Lower Nubians to their north. Lower Nubians were thoroughly Egyptianized by the New Kingdom (a process that started in the Middle Kingdom), and was preserved during the "Nubian Dark Ages", and continued strongly into the Napatan Period as well. They were an intermediate/mixed population living in Egyptian style towns for the period being discussed here. Applying H
  19. Some examples of Kushite bronze knives (Kerma Period, but probably ok enough as a reference for Napato-Meroitic models as well), and a collection of corroded Meroitic iron objects, including some knives:
  20. I discussed this in the opening post of this thread, and several times since. Obviously, the descriptions are referring to primitive peripheral peoples like the early Noba to the west of the Nile. Kushites exported slaves, among other things, to the Persians (as well as receiving Persian luxery goods, attested in some of the recorded Kushite grave goods). These slaves were raided from the Kushite periphery, and may well have supplied the Persians with "Ethiopian" fighters, which is where the primitive description comes from. Not from Kush proper. I already repeatedly pointed ou
  21. "Meroitic Archer from Sudan- I-II Century AD- Encounters with Rome": "Warrior from Sudan- II Century AD- Encounters with Rome. II century AD": "Enemies of Rome- Nomads. Nubia- Archer from the Blemmye Tribe IV Century AD": Kerma Period noble archer:
  22. This was discussed in more detail recently here: The sources are a too ambiguous at the moment for stone throwers. It's possible they had them, but we really don't know for sure. They may have just been referring to slingers. I wouldn't be surprised if more comes to light in future archaeological excavations, or even possible future translations of Meroitic, but not quite yet. Amanirenas will have a chariot in Alpha 24: https://code.wildfiregames.com/D2622 I'm not sure if Kushites will have a non-hero chariot unit. It would be historically accurate (same for axe-men)
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