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===[TASK]=== Crowd Sourced - Judeans (Hasmonean) [Faction]

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J  U  D  E  A  N  S  (Hasmonean Dynasty)

Download Repository: https://github.com/0ADMods/judeans

080419 - Judeans.jpg

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INFANTRY UNITS

jude_infantry_spearman.png

  • Generic Name: Judean Spearman
  • Specific Name: ???
    • Class: Spearman.
    • Hacker Armament: Spear
    • Appearance:
      • Basic: Helmet (None) Body Armor (None) Shield (Round Hide) Footwear (Sandals)
      • Advanced: Helmet (Quilted Cap) Shoulder (Cape) Body Armor (None) Shield (Round Hide) Footwear (Sandals)
      • Elite: Helmet (Quilted Cap) Shoulder (Cape) Body Armor (Quilted Cloth) Shield (Round Hide) Footwear (Sandals)
    • History: ???
    • Garrison: -
    • Function: -
    • Special: -

jude_infantry_slinger.png

  • Generic Name: Judean Slinger.
  • Specific Name: ??? 
    • Class: Slinger. 
    • Hacker Armament: Sling
    • Appearance:
      • Basic: Helmet (Headband) Body Armor (None) Shield (None) Footwear (Sandals)
      • Advanced: Helmet (Quilted Cap) Body Armor (None) Shield (Wooden Oval) Footwear (Sandals)
      • Elite: Helmet (Quilted Cap) Body Armor (Quilted Cloth) Shield (Wooden Oval) Footwear (Sandals)
    • History: ???
    • Garrison: -
    • Function: - 
    • Special: -

jude_infantry_archer.png

  • Generic Name: Judean Archer.
  • Specific Name: ??? 
    • Class: Archer. 
    • Hacker Armament: Bow
    • Appearance:
      • Basic: Helmet (Headband) Body Armor (None) Shield (None) Footwear (Sandals)
      • Advanced: Helmet (Quilted Cap) Body Armor (None) Shield (None) Footwear (Sandals)
      • Elite: Helmet (Quilted Cap) Body Armor (Quilted Cloth) Shield (None) Footwear (Sandals)
    • History: ???
    • Garrison: -
    • Function: - 
    • Special: - 

CAVALRY UNITS

jude_cavalry_javelinist.png

  • Generic Name: Judean Cavalry Spearman
  • Specific Name: ???
    • Class: Spearman.
    • Hacker Armament: Spear
    • Appearance:
      • Basic: Helmet (None) Body Armor (None) Shield (Round Hide) Footwear (Sandals)
      • Advanced: Helmet (Quilted Cap) Shoulder (Cape) Body Armor (None) Shield (Round Hide) Footwear (Sandals)
      • Elite: Helmet (Quilted Cap) Shoulder (Cape) Body Armor (Quilted Cloth) Shield (Round Hide) Footwear (Sandals)
    • History: ???
    • Garrison: -
    • Function: -
    • Special: -

CHAMPION INFANTRY

jude_champion_swordsman.png

  • Generic Name: Judean Royal Guard
  • Specific Name: ???
    • Class: Champion Swordsman.
    • Hacker Armament: Sword
    • Appearance:
      • Champion: Helmet (Hellenistic Helmets) Body Armor (Scale Linothorax) Shield (Round Hide) Footwear (Boots)
    • History: ???
    • Garrison: -
    • Function: -
    • Special: -

HEROES

jude_hero_judah.png

  • Generic Name: Judah Maccabbee
  • Specific Name: ???
    • Class: Hero Swordsman.
    • Hacker Armament: Sword
    • Appearance:
      • Champion: Helmet (Headband) Body Armor (Leather Linothorax) Shield (Round Hide) Footwear (Greaves)
    • History: ???
    • Garrison: -
    • Function: -
    • Special: -

 

 

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Synagogue

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Gamla Synagogue

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Houses

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Some symbols

image.thumb.png.5795d05412a07fce8c43eda0056a917b.pnghttps://www.jstor.org/stable/1452524?read-now=1&seq=10#page_scan_tab_contents

 

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Grape wine.

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The palm branch is a symbol of victory, triumph, peace, and eternal life originating in the ancient Near East and Mediterranean world. The palm (Phoenix) was sacred in Mesopotamian religions, and in ancient Egypt represented immortality. In Judaism, the lulav, a closed frond of the date palm is part of the festival of Sukkot. A palm branch was awarded to victorious athletes in ancient Greece, and a palm frond or the tree itself is one of the most common attributes of Victory personified in ancient Rome.

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And it was made with cherubim and palm trees, so that a palm tree was between a cherub and a cherub; and every cherub had two faces;…

Palm

jewish bronze coin

 

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This most familiar for us.

 

Edited by Lion.Kanzen
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Even some familiar symbols from Hellenistic but by Hasmoneans. 

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An interesting variety has the same Greek legend surrounding a small anchor; the reverse has a crude modern square Hebrew inscription around the sun-wheel, reading “King Alexander Year 25.” The date refers to the 25th year of Alexander’s reign, corresponding to 78 BCE. This is the only ancient Judaean coin with a modern square Hebrew inscription, and also the first dated Jewish coin.

Macabees symbol are less Hellenized.

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The cherubim and the palm trees were closely associated; both were largely represented, and they were found in close conjunction: "a palm tree was between a cherub and a cherub." Both of them pictured the righteous man in the sanctuary of God, but while the cherub signified the good man at his best bringing himself and all that he had as an offering to God, the palm tree stood for the good man as one who had been made what he was by the services of the sanctuary; the one was enlarged and ennobled humanity brining its offering to God, the other was that same humanity gaining its goodness and worth from God and from his house. "The righteous shall flourish like the palm tree," said the psalmist (Psalm 92:12). And there is very good reason why that tree should be taken as a type or picture of the righteous man; there is also excellent reason why the prominence of the palm tree in the prophet's vision should picture the truth that man's goodness is the fair and excellent result of much communion with God. Among the resemblances are these 

https://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/hasmonean-macabbean-coins

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After the death of Antiochus VII in 129 BCE, John Hyrcanus achieved the complete independence of Judaea, and greatly expanded his kingdom through conquests of Idumaea, Samaria, and parts of Transjordan and the Galilee. His successor, Judah Aristobulus, completed the conquest of the Galilee. Under Aristobulus’ brother, Alexander Jannaeus, the Jewish kingdom reached its zenith, stretching from Panias to Beer-Sheba, from the Mediterranean coast to the east bank of the Jordan (Transjordan). Jannaeus' widow, Salome Alexandra, reigned from 76-67 BCE, but no coins have been attributed to her ... possibly because coins were issued in the name of the High Priest, a post that a woman could not fill, and was held by her son - the future king Jonathan Hyrcanus II. After Roman General Pompey annexed the entire Hellinistic East, he captured Jerusalem and dismantled much of the Jewish kingdom, leaving only Judaea, Samaria, the Galilee and Peraea (Transjordan) as a puppet state under Hyrcanus II; Antipater, father of Herod the Great, was made de facto ruler by Julius Caesar. The last Hasmonean ruler, Antigonus Mattathias, battled Herod the Great, who had been appointed King of Judaea through the influence of Mark Antony, until Jerusalem fell to Roman forces in 37 BCE.

With the exception of an extremely rare medium bronze (double prutah) coin of John Hyrcanus, and large bronze coins (chalcus and dichalcus) of Antigonus Mattathias, all of the Hasmonean coins were small bronze prutahs and tiny half prutahs. Hyrcanus’ very rare double prutah features a pair of cornucopiae (horns-of-plenty) and a crested helmet; the Hebrew inscription reads “Yehochanan the High Priest and Leader of the Community of the Jews.”

Wine is important many biblical/Torah events

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Elijah encounters Ahab again in 1 Kings 21, after Ahab has acquired possession of a vineyard by murder. Ahab desires to have the vineyard of Naboth of Jezreel. He offers a better vineyard or a fair price for the land. But Naboth tells Ahab that God has told him not to part with the land. Ahab accepts this answer with sullen bad grace. Jezebel, however, plots a method for acquiring the land. She sends letters, in Ahab's name, to the elders and nobles who lived near Naboth. They are to arrange a feast and invite Naboth. At the feast, false charges of cursing God and Ahab are to be made against him. The plot is carried out and Naboth is stoned to death. When word comes that Naboth is dead, Jezebel tells Ahab to take possession of the vineyard.

God again speaks to Elijah and sends him to confront Ahab with a question and a prophecy: "Have you killed, and also taken possession?" and, "In the place where dogs licked up the blood of Naboth, dogs will also lick up your blood."[33] Ahab begins the confrontation by calling Elijah his enemy. Elijah responds by throwing the charge back at him, telling him that he has made himself the enemy of God by his own actions. Elijah then goes beyond the prophecy he was given and tells Ahab that his entire kingdom will reject his authority; that Jezebel will be eaten by dogs within Jezreel; and that his family will be consumed by dogs as well (if they die in a city) or by birds (if they die in the country). When Ahab hears this he repents to such a degree that God relents in punishing Ahab but will punish Jezebel and their son: Ahaziah.

The olives.

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Here are some specific examples of ways the symbolism of the olive tree is represented in the Jewish faith:

Peace: The olive tree has become a consistent symbol of peace over the years, thanks to the story of Noah’s Ark and the dove that brings back an olive branch as a way to inform Noah that the rain had subsided. Olive branches even became used as a means of showing peace to other leaders/nations.

Love and celebration: Olive branches were used to make wreaths for the heads of young people on their wedding days, and at festivals in biblical times. The pilgrims who brought their first fruits to Jerusalem decorated the horns of the bull that led the procession with olive branches.

Life and vitality: Throughout the Bible there are consistent references to olive trees as symbols of life and vitality. For example, the people of Israel are referred to as “a green olive tree, beautiful with goodly fruit” in the book of Jeremiah. When King Solomon dies, the trees of the garden mourn, shedding their leaves.

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Edited by Lion.Kanzen
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Added a Judean archer to the unit roster

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jude_infantry_archer.png

  • Generic Name: Judean Archer.
  • Specific Name: ??? 
    • Class: Archer. 
    • Hacker Armament: Bow
    • Appearance:
      • Basic: Helmet (Headband) Body Armor (None) Shield (None) Footwear (Sandals)
      • Advanced: Helmet (Quilted Cap) Body Armor (None) Shield (None) Footwear (Sandals)
      • Elite: Helmet (Quilted Cap) Body Armor (Quilted Cloth) Shield (None) Footwear (Sandals)

 

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We can count Samarian or...

https://www.livius.org/articles/place/samaria/

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Samaria (Hebrew Šomron): residence of the kings of ancient Israel, and provincial capital in the Assyrian, Babylonian, Achaemenid, and Seleucid empires. The Jews of Jerusalem did not accept the religious ideas of the people of Samaria, but acknowledged that the Samaritans were not ordinary pagans either.

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By now, Samaria had become a more or less Greek city. Unlike Judah, which was focused on its temple and had become monotheistic, the country surrounding Samaria had always been part of the larger Mediterranean world. The cosmopolitan Samarians must have despised their southern neighbors, although they had to agree that they had much in common; on the other hand, the Jews of Jerusalem considered those visiting the sanctuary on Mount Gerizim heretics, and the inhabitants of Samaria racially impure. Yet, they admitted that the northerners were no pagans.

In 165, the southern state liberated itself from the Seleucid rule and a new, independent state came into being, ruled by high priests from the Hasmonaean dynasty. One of them was John Hyrcanus (134-104), who greatly expanded the Jewish state and captured Samaria in 128 or 107. The temple on Mount Gerizim was immediately destroyed. For the first time since the legendary age of David and Solomon, the two kingdoms were united - one capital, one temple, one God. There was also one leader, and John Hyrcanus' successor Alexander Jannaeus assumed the royal title.

Samaria's fate changed for the better when the Roman general Pompey the Great captured Jerusalem in 63 and transformed the country, now called Judaea, into a Roman protectorate. The city and the surrounding country became independent again, although the temple on Mount Gerizim was not restored. In 31 BCE, the Roman commander Octavian gave Samaria to the new king of Judaea, Herod the Great. When Octavian changed his name into Augustus, Herod changed Samaria's name into Sebaste (the Greek form of Augustus).

Herod embellished and enlarged the city, which became even more "Greek" and was among the king's favorite residences. On the site of the old temple of Ba'al, he dedicated a large temple to Augustus, of which the monumental staircase is still visible. Sebastenaeans served in the army of Herod, which meant that they were sometimes used against the Jews of Judaea or Galilee. This did little to increase sympathy between the two nations.

After the death of Herod (4 BCE), Sebaste was given to his son Herod Archelaus, and when the Romans finally annexed Judaea and organized it as a province (6 CE), the city was one of the centers of the new government. The soldiers were integrated as auxiliary troops in the Roman army. We know of an Ala I Sebastenorum (cavalry) that was stationed in Caesarea and a Cohors I Sebastenorum (infantry).

 

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Herod Fortress.

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Herod the Great: During Herod’s rise to power, his personal army consisted of Jews as well as bands of foreign mercenaries. Rome also loaned Herod the use of three legions to help him expel the Parthian invaders and their puppet king, the Hasmonean prince Antigonus. But by the time of Jesus’ birth, Herod had no Roman troops; he still had a sizable Jewish army, as well as one cohort each of German, Thracian, and Gallic mercenaries. Herod continued to use some Roman advisors and officers.

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I like the idea of this building, the style.

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Edited by Lion.Kanzen

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The faction does have a cavalry skirmisher. I will be adding a cavalry spearman and cavalry archer.

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CAVALRY UNITS

jude_cavalry_javelinist.png

  • Generic Name: Judean Cavalry Spearman
  • Specific Name: ???
    • Class: Spearman.
    • Hacker Armament: Spear
    • Appearance:
      • Basic: Helmet (None) Body Armor (None) Shield (Round Hide) Footwear (Sandals)
      • Advanced: Helmet (Quilted Cap) Shoulder (Cape) Body Armor (None) Shield (Round Hide) Footwear (Sandals)
      • Elite: Helmet (Quilted Cap) Shoulder (Cape) Body Armor (Quilted Cloth) Shield (Round Hide) Footwear (Sandals)

 

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8 minutes ago, wackyserious said:

The faction does have a cavalry skirmisher. I will be adding a cavalry spearman and cavalry archer.

 

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Edited by Lion.Kanzen
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Mount. The main market street of Herodian Jerusalem developed at the bottom of the Tyropoean (Cheesemakers') Valley, which separates the heights of the present Jewish Quarter from the Temple Mount. The market street continued northward to the Damascus Gate. In order for thousands of religious pilgrims to make their way to the Temple Mount without becoming entangled in the crush of the market, two massive pedestrian staircases and overpasses were constructed above the market street. By the 1st century A.D., Herodian Jerusalem had expanded farther northward, beyond the present Old City's northern wall and the Damascus Gate. A new, bustling upper market developed where the present Suq Khan el Zeit market leads toward the Damascus Gate. The original City of David, the oldest part of town, came to be known as the Lower City.

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Vineyard

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Pastoral.

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Edited by Lion.Kanzen

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Don't you think Herodian Romanized Infantry are a bit from late period? Maybe they could be champion units available for late game?

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By the way, TW mod.

https://steamcommunity.com/sharedfiles/filedetails/?id=317348535

 

 

 

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Hasmonean coins usually featured the Paleo-Hebrew script, an older Phoenician script that was used to write Hebrew. The coins are struck only in bronze. The symbols include a cornucopia, palm-branch, lily, an anchor, star, pomegranate and (rarely) a helmet. Despite the apparent Seleucid influences of most of the symbols, the origin of the star is more obscure.[8

 

Edited by Lion.Kanzen
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Added Champion Unit.

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CHAMPION INFANTRY

jude_champion_swordsman.png

  • Generic Name: Judean Royal Guard
  • Specific Name: ???
    • Class: Champion Swordsman.
    • Hacker Armament: Sword
    • Appearance:
      • Champion: Helmet (Hellenistic Helmets) Body Armor (Scale Linothorax) Shield (Round Hide) Footwear (Boots)

 

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Generally speaking about anything Herodian sounds a bit questionable.  I would have a priest unit be their champion, with abilities to provide economic buffs and other important aspects.  The Hasmonean period was essentially a theocratic government, and the position of high priest had strong political and religious authority.  I think that a Hellenised unit would be also quite interesting.  There was a lot of conflict between Greek values and Jewish ones at this period, and perhaps a player could decide between the two, the former making that unit available.  

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4 hours ago, Thorfinn the Shallow Minded said:

Generally speaking about anything Herodian sounds a bit questionable.  I would have a priest unit be their champion, with abilities to provide economic buffs and other important aspects.  The Hasmonean period was essentially a theocratic government, and the position of high priest had strong political and religious authority.  I think that a Hellenised unit would be also quite interesting.  There was a lot of conflict between Greek values and Jewish ones at this period, and perhaps a player could decide between the two, the former making that unit available.  

I'm aware of that, different from each other. 
On the one hand the anti-Hellenistic nationalist fervor.
On the other hand, many nuances of the Hellenistic period.
 

The period is not as theocratic as in the time of Moses or King David, it is not the Levi tribe that is serving as priesthood. After the captivity of Assyria and Babylon many things changed.

 

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5. The Maccabeans captured many weapons that they turned back agains the Seleucids. Judas himself captured the sword of the Seleucid general Apollonius “and used it in battle the rest of his life” (1 Maccabees 3:12). Often the Jews seized weapons (e. g.,

1 Maccabees 3:12; 4:23; 5:3). The statement in 1 Maccabees 6:6 is quite specific in this connection: “The Jews had grown strong from the arms, supplies, and abundant spoils that they had taken from the armies they had cut down.”

6. The Jews sometimes made their own weapons. In one battle the Seleucids “set up siege towers, engines of war to throw fire and stones, machines to shoot arrows, and catapults” (1 Maccabees 6:51). In response, “The Jews also made engines of war to match theirs” (1 Maccabees 6:52).

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Judea had initially come under Ptolemaic rule, but fell to the Seleucids around 200 BCE. Judea at that time had been affected by the Hellenization initiated by Alexander the Great. Some Jews, mainly those of the urban upper class, notably the Tobiad family, wished to dispense with Jewish law and to adopt a Greek lifestyle. According to the historian Victor Tcherikover, the main motive for the Tobiads' Hellenism was economic and political.[9] The Hellenizing Jews built a gymnasium in Jerusalem, competed in international Greek games, "removed their marks of circumcision and repudiated the holy covenant".

When Antiochus IV Epiphanes (ca. 215–164 BCE) became ruler of the Seleucid Empire in 175 BCE, Onias III held the office of High Priest in Jerusalem. To Antiochus, the High Priest was merely a local governor within his realm, a man whom he could appoint or dismiss at will, while orthodox Jews saw the holder of the High Priesthood as divinely appointed.

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brother of Onias, bribed Antiochus to make him High Priest instead of Onias. Jason abolished the traditional theocracy and "received from Antiochus permission to convert Jerusalem into a Greek polis called Antioch".[9][12] In turn, Menelaus then bribed Antiochus and was appointed High Priest in place of Jason. Menelaus had Onias assassinated. Menelaus' brother Lysimachus stole holy vessels from the Temple; the resulting riots led to the death of Lysimachus. Menelaus was arrested for Onias' murder, and was arraigned before Antiochus, but he bribed his way out of trouble. Jason subsequently drove out Menelaus and became High Priest again. Antiochus pillaged the Temple, attacked Jerusalem and "led captive the women and children"

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"considers the Maccabean revolt less as an uprising against foreign oppression than as a civil war between the orthodox and reformist parties in the Jewish camp",[19] but John J. Collins writes that while the civil war between Jewish leaders led to the king's new policies, it is wrong to see the revolt as simply a conflict between Hellenism and Judaism, since "[t]he revolt was not provoked by the introduction of Greek customs (typified by the building of a gymnasium) but by the persecution of people who observed the Torah by having their children circumcised and refusing to eat pork."

Seleucids didn't handle this very well.

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The author of the First Book of Maccabees regarded the Maccabean revolt as a rising of pious Jews against the Seleucid king (who had tried to eradicate their religion) and against the Jews who supported him. The author of the Second Book of Maccabees presented the conflict as a struggle between "Judaism" and "Hellenism", concepts which he coined.[15] Most modern scholars argue that King Antiochus reacted to a civil war between traditionalist Jews in the Judean countryside and Hellenized Jews in Jerusalem,[16][17] though the king's response of persecuting the religious traditionalists was unusual in antiquity, and was the immediate provocation for the revolt.[18] According to Joseph P. Schultz, modern scholarship "considers the Maccabean revolt less as an uprising against foreign oppression than as a civil war between the orthodox and reformist parties in the Jewish camp",[19] but John J. Collins writes that while the civil war between Jewish leaders led to the king's new policies, it is wrong to see the revolt as simply a conflict between Hellenism and Judaism, since "[t]he revolt was not provoked by the introduction of Greek customs (typified by the building of a gymnasium) but by the persecution of people who observed the Torah by having their children circumcised and refusing to eat pork."[18] In the conflict over the office of High Priest, traditionalists with Hebrew/Aramaic names like Onias contested with Hellenizers with Greek names like Jason and Menelaus.[20] Some scholars point to social and economic factors in the conflict.[9][21] What began as a civil war took on the character of an invasion when the Hellenistic kingdom of Syria sided with the Hellenizing Jews against the traditionalists.[22] As the conflict escalated, Antiochus prohibited the practices of the traditionalists, thereby, in a departure from usual Seleucid practice, banning the religion of an entire people.[9] The motives of Antiochus remain unclear: he may have been incensed at the overthrow of his appointee, Menelaus,[11] or – encouraged by a group of radical Hellenizers among the Jews,[15] he may have been responding to an orthodox Jewish revolt that drew on the Temple and the Torah for its strength.[9] Other scholars argue that, while the rising began as a religious rebellion, it was gradually transformed into a war of national liberation.[23]

According to 1 Maccabees, Antiochus banned many traditional Jewish and Samaritan[14] religious practices: he made possession of the Torah a capital offense and burned the copies he could find;[24] sabbaths and feasts were banned; circumcision was outlawed, and mothers who circumcised their babies were killed along with their families;[25] and ritual sacrifice was forbidden. It is said that an idol of Olympian Zeus was placed on the altar of the Temple and that Israelites set up altars to Greek gods and sacrificed "unclean" animals on them.[26]

They use many guerrilla warfare, the land of Judea were very good place for this.

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In the narrative of I Maccabees, after Antiochus issued his decrees forbidding Jewish religious practice, a rural Jewish priest from Modiin, Mattathias the Hasmonean, sparked the revolt against the Seleucid Empire by refusing to worship the Greek gods. Mattathias killed a Hellenistic Jew who stepped forward to offer a sacrifice to an idol in Mattathias' place. He and his five sons fled to the wilderness of Judah. After Mattathias' death about one year later in 166 BCE, his son Judas Maccabee led an army of Jewish dissidents to victory over the Seleucid dynasty in guerrilla warfare, which at first was directed against Hellenizing Jews, of whom there were many. The Maccabees destroyed pagan altars in the villages, circumcised boys and forced Jews into outlawry.[15] The term Maccabees as used to describe the Jewish army is taken from the Hebrew word for "hammer".

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The revolt involved many battles, in which the Maccabean forces gained notoriety among the Seleucid army for their use of guerrilla tactics. After the victory, the Maccabees entered Jerusalem in triumph and ritually cleansed the Temple, reestablishing traditional Jewish worship there and installing Jonathan Maccabee as high priest. A large Seleucid army was sent to quash the revolt, but returned to Syria on the death of Antiochus IV. Its commander Lysias, preoccupied with internal Seleucid affairs, agreed to a political compromise that restored religious freedom.

The Jewish festival of Hanukkah celebrates the re-dedication of the Temple following Judah Maccabee's victory over the Seleucids. According to Rabbinic tradition, the victorious Maccabees could only find a small jug of oil that had remained uncontaminated by virtue of a seal, and although it only contained enough oil to sustain the Menorah for one day, it miraculously lasted for eight days, by which time further oil could be procured

Now other interesthing point.

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Following the re-dedication of the temple, the supporters of the Maccabees were divided over the question of whether to continue fighting or not. When the revolt began under the leadership of Mattathias, it was seen as a war for religious freedom to end the oppression of the Seleucids. However, as the Maccabees realized how successful they had been, many wanted to continue the revolt and conquer other lands with Jewish populations or to convert their peoples. This policy exacerbated the divide between the Pharisees and Sadducees under later Hasmonean monarchs such as Alexander Jannaeus.[29] Those who sought the continuation of the war were led by Judah Maccabee.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maccabees

https://books.google.hn/books?id=Py9Y_HejORQC&pg=PR591&lpg=PR591&dq=maccabeeS+equipement&source=bl&ots=--cLi-mKr_&sig=ACfU3U0-fMkbFtAwFg4QiJA18jUb9qYLAg&hl=es&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjh9JOO0-njAhXLjFkKHRUpDLMQ6AEwCHoECAkQAQ#v=onepage&q=maccabeeS equipement&f=false

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The Herodian dynasty was a royal dynasty of Idumaean (Edomite) descent, ruling the Herodian Kingdom and later the Herodian Tetrarchy, as vassals of the Roman Empire. The Herodian dynasty began with Herod the Great, who assumed the throne of Judea, with Roman support, bringing down the century long Hasmonean Kingdom. His kingdom lasted until his death in 4 BCE, when it was divided between his sons as a Tetrarchy, which lasted for about 10 years. Most of those tetrarchies, including Judea proper, were incorporated into Judaea Province from 6 CE, though limited Herodian de facto kingship continued until Agrippa I's death in 44 CE and nominal title of kingship continued until 92 CE, when the last Herodian monarch, Agrippa II, died and Rome assumed full power over his de jure domain.

Spoiler

Edom  was an ancient kingdom in Transjordan located between Moab to the northeast, the Arabah to the west and the Arabian Desert to the south and east.[3] Most of its former territory is now divided between Israel and Jordan. Edom appears in written sources relating to the late Bronze Age and to the Iron Age in the Levant, such as the Hebrew Bible and Egyptian and Mesopotamian records. In classical antiquity, the cognate name Idumea was used for a smaller area in the same general region.

Edom is mentioned in the Hebrew Bible and it is also mentioned in a list of the Egyptian pharaoh Seti I from c. 1215 BC as well as in the chronicle of a campaign by Ramesses III (r. 1186–1155 BC).[3] The Edomites, who have been archaeologically identified, were a Semitic people who probably arrived in the region around the 14th century BC.[3] Archaeological investigation showed that the country flourished between the 13th and the 8th century BC and was destroyed after a period of decline in the 6th century BC by the Babylonians.[3] After the loss of the kingdom, the Edomites were pushed westward towards southern Judah by nomadic tribes coming from the east; among them were the Nabataeans, who first appeared in the historical annals of the 4th century BC and already established their own kingdom in what used to be Edom, by the first half of the 2nd century BC.[3] More recent excavations show that the process of Edomite settlement in the southern parts of the Kingdom of Judah and parts of the Negev down to Timna had started already before the destruction of the kingdom by Nebuchadnezzar II in 587/86 BCE, both by peaceful penetration and by military means and taking advantage of the already-weakened state of Judah.

The Hebrew word Edom means "red", and is derived from the name of its founder, Esau, the elder son of the Hebrew patriarch Isaac, because he was born "red all over".[9] As a young adult, he sold his birthright to his brother Jacob for "red pottage".[10] The Tanakh describes the Edomites as descendants of Esau

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During the time of the Hasmonean ruler John Hyrcanus (134–104 BCE), Judea conquered Edom (Idumea) and forced the Edomites to convert to Judaism.

The Edomites were gradually integrated into the Judean nation, and some of them reached high-ranking positions. In the days of Alexander Jannaeus, Edomite Antipas, was appointed governor of Edom. His son Antipater, father of Herod the Great, was the chief adviser to Hasmonean Hyrcanus II and managed to establish a good relationship with the Roman Republic, who at that time (63 BCE) extended their influence over the region, following conquest of Syria and intervention in a civil war in Judea.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edom

Edited by Lion.Kanzen

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So no cavalry.?

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My information is based largely on Battle of the Bible, a book written by an Israeli general and an Archaeologist, and the Hammer of God expansion to the boardgame SPQR, designed by Mark Herman and Richard Berg, and published in C3I magazine.

The description given by the game says that the Jewish rebels probably used Greek style units and tactics. That is a reasonable assumption, but not accurate.
Judah Maccabeus, the leader of the revolt, developed a new military system designed to take advantage of the weaknesses of the Seleucid armies, and the rough terrain of the hills. Judah spent a year training his troops while they hid out in the hills after beginning the revolt. While they used captured weapons, and the native bows and slings, their system was quite different. The revolt arose when the Seleucid empire tried to ban the Jewish religion by force, and force the Jews to worship the Greek Pantheon. This enraged many of the rural Jews, who joined the Maccabees, and felt they were fighting for the very survival of their religion and people.

The heaviest troops would be medium infantry in game terms, who were fairly good on rough terrain, These heavy troops were armed with bows, swords, light armor, and light shields. They had a very effective charge, being fanatics with the highest possible morale. In game terms, these troops would be impact foot, and swordsmen, with elite quality. They were capable of standing up to a phalanx for a time.There were also lighter troops, with no armor, who were similarly armed but not expected to stand up to the phalanx, and specialized in missile attacks and attacking the enemy from the flank and rear. They also would be archers and swordsmen, with superior troop quality.

Finally, there would be ordinary archers and slingers, recruited from the villages, who would use missile attacks only. These would also be superior in quality, because of their fanaticism.

The Maccabees had no cavalry, and did not use Greek spear tactics. They won most of their battles, but suffered some defeats. They were particularly vulnerable to elephants. They were always outnumbered.

The forum of Slitherine they included an army from them in one of their games.

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The army list in the game is based on one of the Dead Sea Scrolls, entitled "the War of the Sons of Light against the sons of Darkness". It describes the Maccabean army in considerable detail - with the bulk of the army clearly fitting the thureophoroi standard.

Not only that but thureophoroi were the standard type of mercenary troops in the eastern Mediterranean in this period, and many of the rebels would probably have experience of serving as thureophoroi prior to the revolt.

The cavalry are also based on the description in the scroll.

It is true that the description in the scroll may represent a later stage of the army's development than the initial revolt, when they would have been less well organised. And no doubt there are other possible interpretations.

However, one should beware of reading a list of weapons in a source and assuming that all of the men are armed with all of them, rather than being divided into separate close-fighting troops and skirmishers. If the rebels were armed as you propose they would be completely unique during the period concerned. That might be so, but following more conventional contemporary military practice is perhaps more likely.

Anyway, we stand by our interpretation, which has good evidence to back it up, but you can always mod the units and army lists if you disagree.

I should note that we do have Zealot infantry models lined up for the Imperial Roman period dlc (for the Jewish revolts against Rome), and these would do nicely as part of an early Maccabean army list. They don't have bows, but if you accept the idea that the archers were most probably different men from the close-fighters, you could make a very nice list for the early part of the revolt. In the DLC they will be classified as Medium Foot, Superior, Lightly Protected, Impact Foot, Swordsmen - which in itself is a fairly generous classification.

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I agree with you that the system I described would be unique, but, according to Chaim Herzog and Mordechai Gichon, the authors of Battles of the Bible, the system was unique, invented by Judah Maccabeus specifically to exploit the weaknesses in the enemy system.

I think they are right, because not only do they have a number of sources to back their claim, the fact is that the Maccabees won the war, and the revolution was a success. They were fighting a huge empire with resources many times their own, and were always substantially outnumbered. If they used a system similar to their enemies, they would have been swamped by numbers and never had a chance. At first small armies were sent, and destroyed. Later medium armies, and, finally, large armies. The Maccabees suffered some defeats, and Judah was killed in battle during one of them, but they won most of the battles, and ultimately, the Seleucids gave up and withdrew.

They describe battles in which intensive arrow fire was used to break up Phalanxes, which were then attacked by men with swords. Swords were better for close combat in rough terrain, once the formation of the phalanx was disrupted. Flank and rear attacks were common.

The C3I articles i mentioned in my post have detailed descriptions of six Maccabean battles during the revolt, if you care to look at the articles. I think you would find the descriptions interesting.

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I see your point about elite status, and it makes sense. however, some of the Maccabees were absolutely superlative troops. Judah had a bodyguard of such troops, that he put int the most dangerous position, and that he would use to help kill the enemy commander, which they accomplished several times. Every one of them fought to the death to defend him in the hopeless battle where he was killed. Maybe giving one or two of their sword bearing units elite status would account for that, with the rest of the troops being superior

http://www.slitherine.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=80566

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Another source.

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Jewish equipement

We know the Jews had swords because the Books of Maccabees say so. And if they captured a lot of military equipment, many of them must have had Greek body armor, which would have consisted of a corslet to cover the torso, made of leather or iron, and greaves to protect the lower legs. The Maccabeans also would have captured spears or lances and the round shields Macedonians and Greeks carried. Presumably some contingents became proficient slingers, as Jews had been from time immemorial. Then, as noted above, they sometimes built engines of war, such as catapults

It does not appear that the Maccabeans had whole cavalry units (though they did have a few mounted soldiers), but that was not a great disadvantage in the hilly regions where most of their battles took place. Nor did they have war elephants, as did the Seleucids. From the little information we have, it is not clear how much difference elephants made in battle. Elephants could be almost as much of a problem to the forces that had them as to their enemies. If they were wounded they might become somewhat crazed. If the enemy killed their riders/trainers, they were left without adequate control and might run amuck among friendly forces.

https://books.google.hn/books?id=Py9Y_HejORQC&pg=PR591&lpg=PR591&dq=maccabean+army+greek+slingers&source=bl&ots=--cLi0gFq_&sig=ACfU3U1GFQCdPTGPHTRiLt7_iJ0pjDnFYw&hl=es&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwim6cWO4OnjAhUFwVkKHZubAp4Q6AEwGHoECAgQAQ#v=onepage&q=maccabean army greek slingers&f=false

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About food.

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ANIMAL CONSUMPTION

Though the poor could not afford to eat the meat , the Hebrews raised beef cattle widely. Milk, butter, and cheese were products they would more likely have consumed. The breeding of sheep and goats was extensive and highly profitable. Again the poor normally could not afford to eat the meat but did consume the milk, butter, and cheese. And of course wool and goat hair met many needs in society.

Poultry (geese, ducks, doves, pheasants, quails, ravens, sparrows) were eaten by rich and poor alike. Fishing went on everywhere— in rivers, lakes, and the sea. The Jordan River was very popular for its fish, and those of the Sea of Galilee were widely known. Dried fish from the Sea of Galilee were sold throughout Palestine.

:.

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The level of Jewish agriculture in the Hellenistic period is not altogether clear. The author of the Letter of Aristeas (pars. 112–118: early third century B.C.E.) praised the agricultural productivity of the country and the great "diligence of its farmers. The country is plentifully wooded with numerous olive trees and rich in cereals and vegetables and also in vines and honey. Date palms and other fruit trees are beyond reckoning among them." He apparently exaggerated the extent of the irrigated areas and the importance of the Jordan River as a water source. He similarly referred to large parcels of land – "each a holder of one hundred auroura lots" – about 275,000 square meters. Perhaps he wanted to draw an analogy between the Nile and the Jordan, comparing the small lots of Judah with the large holdings of Egypt. Had Ereẓ Israel been as densely populated as he claimed, the landholding of each family must have been much smaller than he estimated. His assertion might, however, indicate the growth of the landowning class on the one hand and a landless class on the other, conditions that arose soon after the return of the Babylonian exiles. The book of Ben Sira stresses such a contrast between the classes. In the Zeno papyri (259 B.C.E.), Syria and Palestine are described as exporters of agricultural produce: grain, oil, and wine.

The Hasmonean Period

A period of further consolidation and expansion of Jewish settlement. The Hasmonean revolt relied mainly on the farmers, who received their just reward once the war had been won when many Gentile holdings fell into their hands. The farmers adhered closely to the Torah, especially to the precepts pertaining to the land, such as the year of release. Josephus relates (Wars, 1:54–66) that John Hyrcanus was forced to raise his siege of Ptolemy's stronghold because of the scarcity of food occasioned by the sabbatical year. During the reign of Alexander Yannai the Hasmonean kingdom reached the peak of its expansion, Jewish colonization of Galilee increased, and it became the largest center of Jewish population outside of Judea.

 

Edited by Lion.Kanzen
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Women.

Resultado de imagen para female dress judea

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Their clothes were homespun wool or linen, loose fitting, in one of the soft colors of natural dyes – cream, a deep faded pink, or a soft grey. Both sexes wore leather ankle-length boots in winter, sandals in summer, and cut their dusty toenails with a sharp knife.

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Judean women’s clothes were  similar to the men’s in both fabric cut. The tunic was longer than the man’s,  and somewhat more fitted to the body, but never tight enough to show the woman’s  exact shape. It was tied around the waist with a fabric belt, sometimes in a  contrasting color or striped. The women often embroidered even the plainest  garments around the neck, then continued the pattern down the front. The poor  and the middle class used wool or heavy linen, just like the men, and sometimes  finer linen.

The tunics were worn only around  the home or yard; a woman would not be seen in public without two types of  mantle worn over her tunics. The upper mantle was a square or rectangle, made  of wool for use in winter, and of linen for summer. It was a versatile  accessory. The woman could wear it loose on her head, tie a band around it to  keep it secure if she was involved in an active pursuit, wrap it around her  face as a veil, or tie it around her body to create a pouch for carrying small  bundles. A second mantle was a straight cut sleeveless garment, worn over the  tunic and tied with a belt. Several types of veils were also worn in public,  but covering the head was much more important than covering the face, since  showing the face was not forbidden. Very young girls, maidservants, and women of  very low class did not always wear the mantle, but for everyone else it was  required. 

972f40b4096bd44b1cf6b1f552f7f3cc--types-of-dresses-arabian-nights.jpg

Edited by Lion.Kanzen

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Maktesh means market or Bazaars.

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with the "fish gate" and MISHNEH (which see) or "second quarter." Most authorities think it was in the northern part of the city, and many consider that the name was derived from the hollowed-out form of that part of the Tyropeon just N. of the walls, where foreign merchants congregated; others have suggested a hollow farther West, now occupied by the muristan and the three long bazaars.

The name "Tyropoiōn" possibly arose as an ancient mistranslation from Hebrew to the Greek of Josephus's book; Semitic languages use the same root for "outer" and "conge

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The Arabic word is a loan from Aramaic "šūqā" (“street, market”), itself a loanword from the Akkadian "sūqu" (“street”, from "sāqu", meaning “narrow”).

 

Resultado de imagen para Judea century bc bazaar jews

 

  Cardo.

Resultado de imagen para cardo old city

Resultado de imagen para Old city jerusalem romans

The shuk or Shvk

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A souq or souk (Arabic: سوق‎, Hebrew:  shuq, Armenian: shuka, Spanish: zoco, also spelled shuk, shooq, soq, esouk, succ, suk, sooq, suq, soek) is a marketplace or commercial quarter .

Resultado de imagen para muristan shukResultado de imagen para muristan shukResultado de imagen para ancient shuk judea greeks

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As you walk through the narrow lanes of Jerusalem’s Old City Muslim and Christian Quarters market you can imagine that these were the streets that Jesus walked. 2000 years ago market stall holders probably stood here hawking their goods in the very same way as today’s vendors. What makes the Old City market even more interesting is that a large portion of it runs along the Via Dolorosa, the route Jesus took as he carried his cross on the way to his crucifixion where the Church of the Holy Sepulchre now stands. The narrow lanes of the market have small open store fronts on both sides. You can find a range of goods including Hebron glassware, religious goods, hand-made brushes, household goods, traditional Arabian clothing, tourist souvenirs, pastries, Armenian ceramics, olive wood objects, handcrafts, brassware, spices and the delicious freshly squeezed fruit juices. Most tours of the Old City follow at least a portion of the market streets. In the Christian Quarter the market place is called Muristan, a distortion of the Persian-Turkish word for hospital as a Crusader hospital once stood here. While in the market you can see the site of the former hospital and the restored Lutheran Church of the Redeemer. Next to the Muristan is the Aftimos Market, an area of bustling streets lined with stores. The Muristan market area dates back to the 2nd century BC. Today the area has been restored and a beautiful fountain stands at the heart of the market, it was constructed to mark the 25th anniversary of the reign of Sultan Abed al-Hamid
 

 

Here are the Hasmonean Jerusalem.

Resultado de imagen para Seleucid jerusalem

vs Herodian times.Resultado de imagen para Old city jerusalem romans

Spoiler

Under Hezekiah.647e9ab25d6934787abc5d45c752ff1a.jpg

 

Edited by Lion.Kanzen
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