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An off topic theme, no but be careful with thematic. no controversial.

 

Somebody know what's means Reggae color, I know is African but what mean. I'm designing some gift card but I want to know the historical background.

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@Lion.Kanzen

You mean the red, gold and green? Those are the colours of the Imperial Ethiopian flag. 

In 1896, in the Battle of Adwa, the Ethiopian (Abyssinian) army under Emperor Menelik II, (commanded by among others, Ras Makonnen, Haile Selassie's father) decisively defeated a major invasion by the Italians, who sought to colonize Ethiopia. This was the largest single defeat of a modern European army in the history of Africa. A traumatizing event for the Kingdom of Italy, but an event that catapulted Ethiopia to the forefront of African liberation struggles. All around the world people of African descent rallied behind the Ethiopian colours, and with the wave of decolonisation that swept over Sub-Saharan Africa, in no small part due to the efforts and support of Haile Selassie I, many African countries (including Ghana :P ) adopted the red, gold and green as their own national colours (in remembrance and respect for the early liberation struggles).

Among Rastafarians, Haile Selassie has a divine status, and Ethiopian Imperial iconography is widely used, including the imperial flag (and Lion of Judah), which is strongly preferred to the Jamaican National flag, or any other flag for that matter..

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The green-yellow-red flag appeared in 06 October 1897. It was the flag of Ethiopia that became the basis for the Pan African colours. Before the end of the Ethiopian Empire the colours were interpreted as: red for power and faith; yellow for church, peace, natural wealth and love; and green for land and hope.

Although I've heard/read different explanations as well including: Red for the blood of the martyrs; Gold for the riches of the country/culture and Green for the land/nature.  

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Adwa

 

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Emperor Haile Selassie I, born under the name and title: Ras Lij Tafari Makonnen, or simply Ras Tafari.

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The Kebur Zabagna, Imperial troops carrying the flag

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Haile Selassie visits Jamaica, is welcomed by thousands of Ethiopian flags :) 

rasta2.jpg.f5a494e060331ff833291ab222dcd49d.jpg

Edited by Sundiata
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Now this have sense.

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I need use this graphic style in a gift card certificate by an US American restaurant 

 

Edited by Lion.Kanzen

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2 hours ago, Lion.Kanzen said:

An off topic theme, no but be careful with thematic. no controversial.

 

Somebody know what's means Reggae color, I know is African but what mean. I'm designing some gift card but I want to know the historical background.

Actually reggae is not African, it's Jamaican; its colours are black, green, and gold, the colours of Jamaica's flag. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flag_of_Jamaica#Design_and_symbolism gives several interpretations of the meaning of those colours.

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Just now, Nescio said:

Actually reggae is not African, it's Jamaican; its colours are black, green, and gold, the colours of Jamaica's flag. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flag_of_Jamaica#Design_and_symbolism gives several interpretations of the meaning of those colours.

Yes that obvious for me, but I saw this flags in my childhood.

.

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Yes, Haile Selassie is seen as the Christ... "The Lion of Judah, shall break every chain". According to the Ethiopian national history, he descends from the line of King Solomon and David, through Menelik I, son of Queen Makeda of Sheba and Solomon. Haile Selassie and his people are actually confirmed to be of Afro-Semitic ancestry, and an ancient Jewish population still lives in Ethiopia (although most migrated to Israel not long ago), known as Beta Israel (or archaic "Falasha")...

Beta Israel, ancient Ethiopian Jews:

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The Rastafarian movement is a strong mix of literal and spiritual interpretations. Judeo-Christian ideology, mixed with Imperial Ethiopian iconography and a dash of mysticism.

Check out the battle of Adwa... Italians were literally outgunned by the Ethiopians. One of the few occasions where an indigenous African army used artillery against a European army, to terrifying effect...

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Just now, Nescio said:

Actually reggae is not African, it's Jamaican; its colours are black, green, and gold, the colours of Jamaica's

Dude, he's talking about the colours of the flag carried by Rastas/Reggae artists... 

Edited by Sundiata
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@Lion.Kanzen

Yeah, I'm absolutely in love with Ethiopia... Every aspect of their history, from the Kingdom of D'mt, to the Aksumite Empire, the Zagwe Dynasty and the Abyssinian Empire are all simply delicious... 

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Yes, the red-gold-green pan-African colours originated in Ethiopia. And it's no coincedence the African Union is headquarted in Addis Ababa.

49 minutes ago, Sundiata said:

Dude, he's talking about the colours of the flag carried by Rastas/Reggae artists... 

Sorry for interrupting then, apparently I misunderstood.

1 hour ago, Lion.Kanzen said:

I need use this graphic style in a gift card certificate by an US American restaurant

 

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1 minute ago, Nescio said:

Yes, the red-gold-green pan-African colours originated in Ethiopia. And it's no coincedence the African Union is headquarted in Addis Ababa.

Sorry for interrupting then, apparently I misunderstood.

 

No problem.

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13 minutes ago, Lion.Kanzen said:

First African Churches outside Roman control.

Some of the earliest surviving churches anywhere, lol... Ezana, King of Axum was the first Ethiopian monarch to convert to Christianity... In 330's AD!  

Ezana is also the King who invaded and totally destroyed the Kingdom of Kush... lol... Don't know whether to hate him or to love him :P 

Ethiopian coins minted bearing Ezana's name are even found in India...!

 

Just now, Lion.Kanzen said:

Why not propose African faction to Millennium AD?

Kush is still taking up too much time, :P 

In due time, lol :) But Aksumites are super-cool... Pagan, Jewish, Christian and even Islamic elements. Had intense relations with Byzantine empire. Built rock cut churches... Conquered Kush... Conquered Yemen... Sent an army (including a whole lot of elephants) to conquer Mecca not so long before the advent of Islam. Conquest of Mecca didn't go so well... During the Higira (Mohammed's flight to Medina), a significant number of the first Muslims emigrated to Axum, to seek refuge from persecution in Mecca (instructed by Mohammed, because he knew the Christian King would protect his people from the Pagan persecutors, because the Mohammedans worshipped the same god as the Christian King) and built the walled town of Harar, the earliest Muslim community outside of Arabia. Supposedly the Ark of the Covenant (or Tabot) is located in a treasury near the Church of Our Lady Mary of Zion. Axum has some of the largest standing monoliths in the world...

 

Original location of the supposed "Ark of the Covenant", in Axum:

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Current location in Axum

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Stelae of Axum

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Underneath the stelae field are an underground network of tunnels and chambers:  the burial chambers of Aksumite kings:

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The Garima Gospel (Aksumite)

The Garima Gospel (Aksumite) earliest surviving complete illuminated Christian manuscript, IN THE WORLD, written in Ge'ez, ancient Ethiopic script. Supposedly written by Syriac monks, but apparently that's not so certain anymore... 

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The Gospels are housed in Ethiopia's Abba Garima MonasteryAbba Garima Monastery is an Ethiopian Orthodox church, located around five kilometres east of Adwa, in the Mehakelegnaw Zone of the northern Tigray Region in Ethiopia. It was established in the sixth century by one of the Nine Saints, Abba Garima, and built by King Gabra Masqal (also Gebre Meskel). The monastery became known for its early manuscript copy of the gospels and its treasury.[1][2]

recent radiocarbon analysis; samples from Garima 2 proposed a date of c. 390-570, while counterpart dating of samples from Garima 1 proposed a date of c. 530-660.

Monastic tradition ascribes the gospel books to Saint Abba Garima, said to have arrived in Ethiopia in 494.[2] Abba Garima is one of the Nine Saints traditionally thought to have come from Syria, and to have evangelized the rural populations of the ancient Ethiopian kingdom of Axum in the sixth century; and the monks regard the Gospels less as significant antiquities than as sacred relics of Abba Garima.[2] According to tradition, Abba Garima wrote and illustrated the complete Gospels in a single day; God stopped the sun from setting until the Saint completed his work.[1] Definitive radiocarbon tests have indeed supported the dating Abba Garima 2, the earlier of the two books, to the sixth century,[3] but otherwise recent research tends to contra-indicate many aspects of the traditional account; proposing instead that the text-base for the Garima gospels is Greek not Syriac, that the iconography and palaeography looks to Egyptian not Syrian sources, and that the gospel translation witnessed in the Garima gospels had been completed over a century before the traditional dates for the Nine Saints. Furthermore, the supposed Syrian origin of the Nine Saints is no longer maintained in most recent scholarship.[6]

 

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Evangelist portrait of Saint Mark from Garima 2

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Other ancient illuminated manuscripts:

This all belongs to the  Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church, by the way..

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Other Ethiopian Monks:

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The Bahitawi are a specific type of Ethiopian hermit monk, separate from society. They follow similar Old Testament commandments as (strict) Rastafarians, which makes them look similar. A great source of spiritual inspiration for Rastafarians and Ethiopians alike. Cross-continetal mysticism...

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Two Rastafarians and a Bahitawi monk :) 

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The world used to be so beautiful in all its diversity... Now it's just shopping malls, highways and Netflix... :cry:

 

 

Edited by Sundiata
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45 minutes ago, Sundiata said:

The world used to be so beautiful in all its diversity... Now it's just shopping malls, highways and Netflix... :cry:

 

 

There is 0ad though :)

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Here's some Ethiopian nationalism for you guys :) 

At the beginning of the second Italo-Abyssinian war, the various Ethiopian princes (Ras), chieftains, generals, warlords and regular soldiers pledged allegiance to the Emperor, Haile Selassie I, in spectacular ceremonious splendor. After months of heavy fighting, in which the Italians used hundreds of tons of poison gas (sprayed from airplanes), Haile Selassie (who actually fought in the trenches with his troops) was forced into exile. Addis Ababa was captured by the Italians, and the remaining Ethiopian forces formed a resistance movement, called "the Black Lions". Resistance fighters heavily restricted the movement of Italian troops outside of Addis Ababa and Axum, making Italian attempts to control the countryside a nightmare. The frustration led to several major massacres of civilians and clergy, the destruction churches and even archaeological sights. Monuments like some of the Stelae of Axum were taken back to Italy in their entirety, and more bad stuff... This war was a major prelude to WWII, as it showed the ineffectiveness of the League of Nations. 5 years later Ethiopia was liberated with help from allied forces, and Selassie was reinstalled. Some of the dudes in the video are major commanders, turned resistance fighters in the later part of the war... There's dudes "riding" lions in this video... Like, seriously... Anyway, it's this spirit of resistance that inspired Rastafarians so much. Ethiopian nationalism is very strong among most Rastafarians, which is why you see the red, gold and green so often in association with the movement. This imperial iconography and spirit of resistance permeates Rastafarian art, including music, and since Rastas make some of the best Reggae music out there.... 

 

 

Haile Selassie during the war:

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Traditional warriors (chiefs/commanders)

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Elite, personal guard (European equipment) Zabagna

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Selassie and Mussolini

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Selassie haunts the dreams of Mussolini:

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Selassie and Rastafarians:

Mortimo Planno (Rastaman) was an important mentor to Bob Marley...

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"Be Good Rasta, Be Good", :P 

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Check out dr Kwame Nkrumah, first president of Ghana meeting with Haile Selassie, and one of his lions... Hilarious, the way they're scared and excited at the same time to pet a lion. These are absolute heavyweights in African/world history:

 

And Menelik II, Haile Selassie's uncle and predecessor. It was under him that the Italians were first defeated at Adwa, 1896.

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Edited by Sundiata
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The great war... that don't be happen. but here in Latin-American nobody enter to that war. we receive the immigrants. for example the idea to make a new roman is great... but no with weapons, or industrial weapons.

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11 hours ago, Sundiata said:

The world used to be so beautiful in all its diversity... Now it's just shopping malls, highways and Netflix... :cry:

 

 

Remember to always enjoy even that, you may never know when that could become what i see here, i hope someday i'll see again shopping malls, highways whitout the inminent and highly possibility to be robbed or killed.

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11 hours ago, Alexandermb said:

Remember to always enjoy even that, you may never know when that could become what i see here, i hope someday i'll see again shopping malls, highways whitout the inminent and highly possibility to be robbed or killed.

Sorry to hear that. I understand Venezuela is going through some rough times... I wish you all strength! 

How is it on the ground? It's difficult to figure out exactly what's going on from the news... Are there any "good guys" in the picture, or is proper leadership missing from all sides? How do you see the situation evolving? 

Spoiler

 

I'm sorry, I'm just a bit of a cynic... 

Over here we have shopping malls, but most people can't really afford to shop there... We have highways, but most people can't afford a car... We have netflix... But I don't really care about that, neither do most other people. We have peace and stability, economic growth and such, but for how long. Rich get richer, poor get poorer... An age old story... Like much of the world, it's basically a pressure cooker... 

People took to the streets recently because the Americans pressured/bribed the government to expand their military activity here and get access to our military installations, and be able to ship stuff in and out of country without customs checking it (duty free, off course)... We're not even allowed to arrest them if they commit a crime... And everybody knows, where American soldiers show up, Al Qaeda and the likes are soon to follow (see what happened in Mali, Northern Nigeria, Niger...). They want to use our country as a stepping stone to launch attacks on other regions in West Africa. We're allowing the same clown that called us "s-h-i-t-hole countries" just a few months ago to bring in his barely grown up soldier boys with big guns... Oorah... 

All the while, people here are systematically cutting down the once lush forests, (many of which are supposed to be protected)... Even the ministry of forestry is in on it... Makes me want to cry... The rains and weather patterns have changed, so traditional farming methods are becoming impossible without irrigation, fertilizer, pesticides... Hordes of Chinese miners are illegally mining gold in the more remote regions, scarring the land and polluting our rivers with mercury... They come in their THOUSANDS, no matter how many we deport. They even bring along their own mafia and prostitutes. We used to be a self-sufficient country in terms of food-production and other things (not so long ago), but Western dumping tactics have destroyed our local industries, and when government tries to protect the local economy, we get threatened with sanctions, because, "unfair trade-practices"... 

Oh god, and don't even get me started on our local superstars... Televangelists... Evangelical preachers rambling on for hours, telling everybody they should give (even) more money to the "church", and naming any kind of social progress/development, naturconservation, traditional culture as devilish... I normally wouldn't mind them, but the under-educated masses have become brainwashed by these charlatans... 

I'd like to look on the bright side of things, and there are really good and exciting things happening as well... But so much needs to change, and I barely know where to begin...

 

 

14 hours ago, Lion.Kanzen said:

for example the idea to make a new roman is great

Euhm, not really, no... lol

I mean, what have the Romans ever done for us?

:P

But seriously though, Romans were genocidal maniacs... Most Imperial civilizations actually... 

Edited by Sundiata
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