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Nabateans, Judean , Arameans, Samaritans, Idumeans and Syrian natives


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This areference and cultural post about , clothes, armory and visual reference about this people who serves under Seleucid kingdom.

 

relationship between these people. Are some hard to find good reference so, in order have solid and conclusive material , I open this topic and I will link with Main Seleucid/Ptolemaic reference topic.

 

 

Edited by Lion.Kanzen
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The Nabataeans were one among several nomadic tribes that roamed the Arabian Desert, moving with their herds to wherever they could find pasture and water. These nomads became familiar with their area as seasons passed, and they struggled to survive during bad years when seasonal rainfall diminished.[2] Despite the fact that the Nabataeans were initially embedded in Aramaic culture, theories about them having Aramean roots are rejected by modern scholars. Instead; historical, religious and linguistic evidence confirm that they are a northern Arabian tribe

 

Unlike the rest of the Arabian tribes, the Nabataeans later emerged as vital players in the region during their times of prosperity. However, they later faded and were forgotten.[2] The brief Babylonian captivity of the Hebrews that began in 586 BCE opened a minor power vacuum in Judah (prior to the Judaeans' return under the Persian King, Cyrus the Great), and as Edomites moved into open Judaean grazing lands, Nabataean inscriptions began to be left in Edomite territory. The first definite appearance was in 312/311 BCE, when they were attacked at Sela or perhaps Petra without success by Antigonus I's officer Athenaeus as part of the Third War of the Diadochi; at that time Hieronymus of Cardia, a Seleucid officer, mentioned the Nabataeans in a battle report. About 50 BCE, the Greek historian Diodorus Siculus cited Hieronymus in his report,[clarification needed] and added the following: "Just as the Seleucids had tried to subdue them, so the Romans made several attempts to get their hands on that lucrative trade."[citation needed]

 

The Nabataeans had already some tincture of foreign culture when they first appear in history. That culture was Aramaic; they wrote a letter to Antigonus in Syriac letters, and Aramaic continued to be the language of their coins and inscriptions when the tribe grew into a kingdom, and profited by the decay of the Seleucids to extend its borders northward over the more fertile country east of the Jordan river.

The Aramaic language was increasingly affected by the Arabic language, as Arab influence grew in the region over time. From the 4th century, the Arabic influence becomes overwhelming, in a way that it may be said the Nabataean language shifted seamlessly from Aramaic to Arabic. The Arabic alphabet itself developed out of cursive variants of the Nabataean script in the 5th century.

relationship with Seleucids and Judean in this period.

The Nabataeans were allies of the first Hasmoneans in their struggles against the Seleucid monarchs. They then became rivals of the Judaean dynasty, and a chief element in the disorders that invited Pompey's intervention in Judea.

 

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Arameans.

The Arameans, or Aramaeans, (Aramaicܐܪ̈ܡܝܐ‎‎,ʼaramáyé) were an ancient Northwest Semitic Aramaic-speaking tribal confederacy who emerged from Syria in the Late Bronze Age the region known as Aram from the 11th-8th centuries BC. They established a patchwork of independent Aramaic kingdoms in the Levant and seized large tracts of Mesopotamia.

However, during the Greek Seleucid Empire (312-150 BC), when the Greeks conquered Assyria from the Achaemenids, they applied the 9th century BC Indo-European name for Assyria to that land, which read Syria, a derivative of  Aššūrāyu, which had hitherto only referred historically and geographically to Assyria and the Assyrians, a land and people in modern terms situated in the northern half of Iraq, north-eastern Syria, south-eastern Turkey and the north-western fringe of Iran, and not to the Levant or its largely Aramean populace[9][10] (see Etymology of Syria). From the late 4th or early 3rd century BC the Seleucid Greeks also applied this name to Aram/Eber-Nari to the west of Assyria/Syria, which had been an Assyrian colony for three centuries. This caused both the Assyrians from Assyria and the Arameans to the west in Aram, to be labelled Syrians (and later Syriacs) in Greco-Roman culture, despite the two peoples being geographically, historically and ethnically distinct from one another.[11] This confusion would continue in the Western world until modern times with the Syria versus Assyria naming controversy (see Name of Syria).

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Conical helmet.

Name: Conical helmet

Origin: 8th century BC

Referred to as huliam by the Assyrians, The conical helmet can be described has a calotte helmet that rises to a point above the head and was made mostly of iron due to its lower cost. The picture depicted here is a bronze conical helmet. Other improvements such as additional cheek or ear pieces were made on the conical helmets in the later years of the empire.

https://web.wpi.edu/academics/me/IMDC/IQP Website/WAsiaFiles/800bc-600bcFiles/assyrian-empire.html

 

IMG_3036.JPG

 

The Areamaens dont use Helmets... Research in Progress.

Edited by Lion.Kanzen
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Greeks and Greek culture enters the Israelite world beginning with First Maccabees. Likewise the narrative of the New Testament (which was written in Greek) entered the Greek worldbeginning about Acts 13.

Clothing in ancient Greece primarily consisted of the chitonpeploshimation, and chlamys. Despite popular imagination and media depictions of all-white clothing, elaborate design and bright colors were favored.[22] Greek clothing consisted of lengths of linen or wool fabric, which generally was rectangular. Clothes were secured with ornamental clasps or pins and a belt, sash, or girdle might secure the waist.

Peplos, Chitons

The inner tunic was a peplos or chiton. The peplos was a worn by women. It was usually a heavier woollen garment, more distinctively Greek, with its shoulder clasps. The upper part of the peplos was folded down to the waist to form an apoptygma. The chiton was a simple tunic garment of lighter linen, worn by both genders and all ages. Men's chitons hung to the knees, whereas women's chitons fell to their ankles. Often the chiton is shown as pleated.

Chlamys, Himation

The chlamys was made from a seamless rectangle of woolen material worn by men as a cloak. The basic outer garment during winter was the himation, a larger cloak worn over the peplos or chlamys. The himation has been most influential perhaps on later fashion.

 

IMG_3048.JPG

Edited by Lion.Kanzen
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Arabian Peninsula

In most countries of the Arabian peninsula, a plain or checkered scarf (called keffiyehghutrahshumagh or ghabanah), not usually described as a turban is often worn, though the Arabic Emamah tradition remains strong in Oman (see Sultan Qaboos of Oman), Sudan and some parts of the Arabian peninsula. 

 

The tribes of Israel, and their Jewish and Samaritan descendants, have worn variations of the keffiyah since biblical times.[5] This practice was not unique to the Arabs, as the wearing of headgear is a universal practice amongst Semitic peoples and a logical protection against the harsh mid-east sun. From the biblical and rabbinic sources it can be deduced with certainty that the ancient Israelites wore headgear similar, if not identical, to the Kefiyah (كوفية) still worn by Arab and other Semitic peoples.[6] Variations of the Jewish Kefiyah (كوفية اليهود ), also known as a Sudra, were worn by middle-eastern Jews from ancient until modern times. This ancient practice rapidly declined...

 

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Arab Javalinier

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Judean Slinger

 

http://www.twcenter.net/forums/showthread.php?678519-PREVIEW-Sassanid-amp-Arab-Units-RELEASED!

Edited by Lion.Kanzen
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Further Information: Wars of Alexander the GreatSeleucid EmpireCoele-Syria

640px-Seleucid-Empire_200bc.jpg
The Seleucid Empire in 200 BC (before expansion into Anatolia and Greece).

The history of Greeks in Syria traditionally begins with Alexander the Great’s conquest of the Persian Empire. In the aftermath of Alexander's death, his empire was divided into several successor states, and thus ushering in the beginning of the Hellenistic Age. For the Levant and Mesopotamia, it meant coming under the control of Seleucus I Nicator and the Seleucid Empire. The Hellenistic period was characterized by a new wave of Greek colonization. The Seleucid Empire was a major empire of Hellenistic culture that maintained the pre-eminence of Greek customs in which a Greek political elite dominated, in newly founded urban areas.[7][8][9][10] The Greek population of the cities who formed the dominant elite were reinforced by emigration from Greece.[7][8] The creation of new Greek cities were aided by the fact that the Greek mainland was overpopulated and therefore made the vast Seleucid Empire ripe for colonization. Apart from these cities, there were also a large number of Seleucid garrisons (choria), military colonies (katoikiai) and Greek villages (komai) which the Seleucids planted throughout the empire to cement their rule.

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Why they stop using Cretan archers?

During the early years of the reign of Demetrius II (circa 147BC) the king was dominated by (and a virtual puppet of) the captain of his Cretan mercenaries, the former pirate, Lasthenes. For five years the mercenaries terrorized and looted the country (“The Cretan Terror”). The citizens of Antioch rose in a doomed attempt to throw out the foreigners. In bloody street fighting thousands of Antiochenes were killed by the Cretan (and Jewish) mercenaries. Much of the city was destroyed, and the Cretans took reprisals against all who had resisted them.

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Historically, Syria has been famous for its archers for thousands of years. These men took part in almost every major Near Eastern war since the early Assyrian kingdom used them as auxiliary troops. They have been a decisive arm on the battlefield time and time again, so long as they are supported by good infantry. A sensible commander will take their strengths and weaknesses into account before using them.

so may be that the origin of conical helmet.

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IMG_3153.JPG

Edited by Lion.Kanzen
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Judean mercenaries.

As noted above, Judean mercenaries were also much prized; by both the Ptolemies and the Seleucids. This was at least in part due to the notable lack of love the Jews had for the local (Gentile) populations of these kingdoms. Their loyalty was strictly to their paymaster, and they had no compunction in using brutal force against the civilian population if called upon to crush dissent. Judeans fought as slingers and thureophoroi; and had a doughty reputation as fierce fighters.

Following the rising of the citizens of Antioch against the Cretans, and the subsequent sack of the city by the mercenaries, the Judean mercenaries carried a vast fortune in loot back to Judea. When the Maccabee revolt broke out a few years later, it may well have been (in part) inspired by the weakness these returned Judean mercenaries related concerning the decayed state of their Seleucid masters. Their service as mercenaries in Ptolemaic and Seleucid service gave many Jews the necessary military experience and knowledge of Hellenistic methods to fight and, at times, defeat the forces the Seleucid government sent against them.

 

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https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Achaemenid_Assyria

the Assyrian archers used by Persian in campaigns.

Quote

The Assyrian contingent wore on their heads either bronze helmets or plaited helmets of a peculiarly foreign design which is hard to describe. Their shields, spears, and daggers, resembled Egyptian ones, and they also carried wooden clubs with iron studs, and wore.|author=Herodotus[31]

 

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https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Assyria_(Roman_province)

Assyrian archers? Or Syrian?

In 332 BC, Assyria fell to Alexander the Great, the Macedonian Emperor from Greece, who called the inhabitants Assyrioi. The Macedonian Empire (332–312) was partitioned in 312 BC. It thereafter became part of the Seleucid Empire (312 BC). It is from this period that the later Syria Vs Assyria naming controversy arises, the Seleucids applied the name not only to Assyria itself, but also to the Levantine lands to the west (historically known as Aram and Eber Nari), which had been part of the Assyrian empire but, the north east corner aside, never a part of Assyria proper.

When the Seleucids lost control of Assyria proper, the name Syria survived but was erroneously applied only to the land of Aramea (also known as Eber Nari) to the west that had once been part of the Assyrian empire, but apart from the north eastern corner, had never been a part of Assyria itself, nor inhabited by Assyrians. This was to lead to both the Assyrians from Northern Mesopotamia and the Arameans and Phoenicians from the Levant being collectively dubbed Syrians (and later also Syriacs) in Greco-Roman and later European culture, regardless of ethnicity, history or geography.

http://www.romanarmy.net/images/Pages/Military/hamians.htm

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Name_of_Syria

Roman Assyrian Archers

However, a number of Assyrians were conscripted into the Roman Army, with many serving in the region of Hadrians Wall in Roman Britain, and inscriptions in Aramaic made by soldiers have been discovered in Northern England dating from the second century.

http://www.romanarmy.net/images/Pages/Military/hamians.htm

Edited by Lion.Kanzen
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  • 5 months later...
  • Lion.Kanzen changed the title to Nabateans, Judean , Arameans, Samaritans, Idumeans and Syrian natives

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