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[Research] Mints


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As all of you know I'm really interested in this kind of buildings wether it should be Used as a standard Building or as an eyecandy, for small villages, which will have the great animations now that skeletons are fixed with their folks. Anyway I wasn't able to find much information on the buildings references itself except finding big ovens, and that the first appears to have been created in Lydia A few centuries AD.

As you may have seen I made one (Two If you count the variations.) I used the reference for the Siedlers in which game I leaked the model a few weeks to later to compair boths.


Can someone help me to find references ?

Regards Stan.

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Mint is more difficult to find, as single word, I add keywords like: currency, coin,coinage:

Coinage probably began in Lydia around 600 BC, and circulated in the cities of Asia Minor under its control;[3] early electrum coins have been found at the Temple of Diana at Ephesus. The technique of minting coins arrived in mainland Greece around 550 BC, beginning with coastal trading cities like Aegina and Athens. Their use spread, and the city-states quickly secured a monopoly on their creation. The very first coins were made from electrum (an alloy of gold and silver), followed by pure silver, the most commonly found valuable metal in the region. The mines of the Pangaeon hills allowed the cities of Thrace and Macedon to mint a large quantity of coins. Laurium's silver mines provided the raw materials for the "Athenian owls", the most famous coins of the ancient Greek world. Less-valuable bronze coins appeared at the end of the 5th century.

Coins played several roles in the Greek world. They provided a medium of exchange, mostly used by city-states to hire mercenaries and compensate citizens. They were a source of revenue: foreigners had to change their money into the local currency at an exchange rate favorable to the State. They served as a mobile form of metal resources, which explains discoveries of Athenian coins with high levels of silver at great distances from their home city. Finally, the minting of coins lent an air of undeniable prestige to any Greek city or city state.

------------other source--------

In 600 B.C., Lydia's King Alyattes minted the first official currency. The coins were made from electrum, a mixture of silver and gold that occurs naturally, and stamped with pictures that acted as denominations. In the streets of Sardis, circa 600 B.C., a clay jar might cost you two owls and a snake. Lydia's currency helped the country increase both its internal and external trade, making it one of the richest empires in Asia Minor. It is interesting that when someone says, "as rich as Croesus", they are referring to the last Lydian king who minted the first gold coin. Unfortunately, minting the first coins and developing a strong trading economy couldn't protect Lydia from the swords of the Persian army. (To read more about gold, see What Is Wrong With Gold?)


------- different source------

Coins were introduced as a method of payment around the 6th or 5th century BCE. The invention of coins is still shrouded in mystery: According to Herdotous (I, 94), coins were first minted by the Lydians, while Aristotle claims that the first coins were minted by Demodike of Kyrme, the wife of King Midas of Phrygia. Numismatists consider that the first coins were minted on the Greek island of Aegina, either by the local rulers or by king Pheidon of Argos.

Aegina, Samos, and Miletus all minted coins for the Egyptians, through the Greek trading post of Naucratis in the Nile Delta. It is certain that when Lydia was conquered by the Persians in 546 BCE, coins were introduced to Persia. The Phoenicians did not mint any coins until the middle of the fifth century BCE, which quickly spread to the Carthaginians who minted coins in Sicily. The Romans only started minting coins from 326 BCE.

Coins were brought to India through the Achaemenid Empire, as well as the successor kingdoms of Alexander the Great. Especially the Indo-Greek kingdoms minted (often bilingual) coins in the 2nd century BCE. The most beautiful coins of the classical age are said to have been minted by Samudragupta (335-376 CE), who portrayed himself as both conqueror and musician.

The first coins were made of electrum, an alloy of silver and gold. It appears that many early Lydian coins were minted by merchants as tokens to be used in trade transactions. The Lydian state also minted coins, most of the coins mentioning king Alyattes of Lydia. Some Lydian coins have a so-called legend, a sort of dedication. One famous example found in Caria reads "I am the badge of Phanes" - it is still unclear who Phanes was.

In China, gold coins were first standardized during the Qin dynasty (221-207 BCE). After the fall of the Qin dynasty, the Han emperors added two other legal tenders: silver coins and "deerskin notes", a predecessor of paper currency which was a Chinese invention.



Gold and silver were an integral part of business and trade as far back as in the early civilisations of Sumer (the land between the rivers Euphrates and Tigris in what is now Iraq) and Egypt. The great French historian Fernand Braudel saw these precious metals as the "lifeblood of Mediterranean trade in the 2nd millennium BC". Initially, however, they were traded simply by weight in the form of ingots, which could then be cut up into small chunks or drawn into wire. And the metals, particularly silver, were regarded more as standard of accounting or for taxes to rulers or temples, rather than for general circulation among the population.

The first real coins were not struck until the 6th century BC in Lydia (Western Turkey). They were made from electrum, natural alloy of gold and silver found in the rivers of the region. They usually had a lion or a bull on one face and a punch mark or seal on the other, and weighed from 17.2 grams (0.55 troy oz) to as little as 0.2 grams (.006 troy oz). Their introduction is attributed to the Lydian king Croesus (561-547 BC). Improvements in refining soon led to the distinct minting of gold and silver coin.

Coinage was swiftly taken up in the blossoming Greek city states just across the Aegean sea, though it was predominantly of silver until Philip II of Macedon (359-336 BC) acquired gold and silver mines in Thrace (now Bulgaria). His son, Alexander the Great (336-323 BC) then consolidated the Greek empire with his conquest of the Persian empire, securing an immense gold treasure built up by the Persians from gold sources on the river Oxus in northern Afghanistan. Alexander is reputed to have taken over 22 metric tonnes (700,000 troy ounces) of gold coin in loot from the Persians. For both Philip II and Alexander, gold coin became an essential way of paying their armies and meeting other military expenses. Under the Greek empire, the coins were stamped with the head of the king instead of lions, bulls and rams that had previously adorned gold coin elsewhere.

The Romans, for whom gold coin became the crucial way of paying their legions, also adopted the custom of striking the emperor's head on their gold aureus coin. The aureus was usually 950 fine (22 carat) and weighed 7.3 grams (0.23 troy oz); 45 aurei weighed one roman pound (libra). Although this coin was too valuable for most daily transactions, they were used by administrators, traders and for army pay (a legionnaire was paid one aureus each month). In Britain, one aureus bought 400 litres (28.57 gallons) of cheap wine or 91 kilos (200 pounds) of flour. A smaller gold coin, the solidus, weighing 4.4 grams (0.14 troy oz) was introduced after 300 AD, as gold supplies from Spain and Eastern Europe declined.

The Romans minted gold coin on a scale not seen before and not equalled until modern times. Between 200 and 400 AD hundreds of millions of coins were struck and distributed throughout the empire. The extent of circulation is demonstrated by the hoards of roman coins that have turned up across Europe, particularly in Britain, which can be seen in many museums, notably the British Museum in London. The British Museum's HSBC Money Gallery provides a unique display of the evolution of early gold coin.

The Roman empire brought a remarkable unity to much of western Europe through coherent public institutions and coinage. When that empire fell apart soon after 400 AD, it was almost one thousand years before widespread gold coinage returned. The solidus survived as the main gold coin of the Mediterranean world, being minted by the Byzantine emperors in Constantinople as the nomisma or bezant. The bezant personified gold coinage from the fall of the Roman empire until the rise of Venice with its famous gold and silver ducats. "It is admired by all men and in all kingdoms, because no kingdom has a currency that can be compared to it," noted a 6th century observer. But due to a shortage of new gold supplies, minting was very limited and the coins were increasingly debased. By 1081 the gold content was only 250 fine (six carats). The Emperor Comenus restored some credibility in 1092 with a new coin of 4.4 grams (0.14 troy oz) called the hyperpyron, which many still nicknamed bezant and the Venetians called perpero. The coin never attained much prestige, however, as gold supplies were still limited.


Edited by Lion.Kanzen
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Around the middle the 3rd century C. E., Roman mints began incorporating mint marks on their coins - Roman Bureaucracy at work. This actually was part of a quality control endeavor to help regulate consistent coin weights across the empire. Collecting coins from the same mints or collecting a specific coin type from various mints, are directions many take in this hobby. Being able to read the mints is very helpful in fully attributing a coin and necessary if using RIC as your attribution source.

Mint marks contain one to three elements [surprisingly, the Romans never established a consistent system for applying the mint marks]:

1st - a letter: P (Pecunia = money), M (Moneta) or SM (Sacra Moneta = Imperial money).

2nd - one to four letters representing the mint.

3rd - a single letter indicating the Officina or workshop. In the Latin system, the officina was indicated by A = prima or 1st officina, B = secunda or 2nd, C = tertia or 3rd, etc.

With the monetary reforms of Aurelian and Diocletian came changes in the mint markings [or at least the notation in the exergue - the area at the bottom reverse of the coin]. Roman numerals appeared, the meaning of which is still debated. Often a single letter or a letter between stars is all that appears in the exergue. The table below lists the major Roman mints and their marks. This table appears several places on the internet so I am unsure of the source (although it parallels Sear and Van Meter texts) and I have added some more obscure mint sites.

Security and secrecy at the mints were of prime importance, as it is now. It is surprising how little has come down to us in written records or in artifacts. Worn and broken dies were probably recycled and records destroyed. There is a fascinating Roman Republican denarius depicting mint tools that was minted by T. Carisius. 46 BCE. The link to the left will take you to an example on Wildwinds.com. Occasionally counterfeiters' dies will be unearthed and in extremely rare occurances an official die will turn up. Recently a wonderful example of a Roman Republican die was sold at auction with an estimate of $12,000.

The Romans also used over 600 provincial mints in cities around the empire. For information on these, click here: Provincial mints.



Ok now we know where find...

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According to Suidas, the mint was located in (or at least near) the temple of Juno Moneta on the Capitoline Hill. By this time Rome was familiar with coinage, as it had been introduced to Italy in the Greek colonies of Metapontum, Croton, and Sybaris before 500 BC and Neapolis ca 450 BC.[2] Rome had conquered a large portion of central Italy, giving it large quantities of bronze, but little silver.

I found when coinage+ mint+rome


Now we get the names of the buildings not only mint :).

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Nice work. Do you plan to create the variations by using a modular system (at least for the mesh, e.g. roof, .. exchange with that one, texture with that ... Tower fits there)?

Just thinking of our future prop system. Would be interesting to know if the additional vertices in a modular system (basic structures, e.g. walls that can be propped to gether) would be significant. (it would probably double the vertex count if I follow Enrique's art tips correctly).

Do you think to add an animated minter? It's not possible to have a real unit there because of the obstructions. :/

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This is Spanish but have the mint tools from roman era.

I was knew mint in Spanish is ceca(always I thought the coinage was in house of coin) . Now can be easily find.

Somebody speak other language to add more information.


Edited by Lion.Kanzen
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Workshop like: Sekobirikes, Arekoratas, Baskunes, Kaiskata

I need find what means that names, it's about workshop where ancients(Iberian or Carthaginians) mints the coins...

It's very large and extended text in Spanish but with images.


Spanish origin source:

El espacio físico donde se trabajaba es uno de los aspectos menos conocidos de la acuñación de moneda en la Antigüedad. La infraestructura y el espacio necesario serían mínimos (fig. 8); el volumen de las emisiones y su continuidad, determinaría que se ocupasen provisionalmente edificios para desarrollar el trabajo, como en el caso de algunas emisiones ibéricas, o que existiesen sedes permanentes para el mismo como sucedió en la ciudad de Roma. Una variante fueron las cecas itinerantes de campaña o aquellas que en el bajo-imperio se movían junto con la corte imperial. También fueron cecas coyunturales aquellas que se dedicaron a las imitaciones[111].

En Marsella se ha excavado recientemente una instalación metalúrgica para preparar flanes, que estuvo situada dentro del arsenal militar o puerto de guerra[112]. Los cospeles recuperados son de bronce, metal que se empezó a acuñar en Massalia en la segunda mitad del s. III a.C. El suelo era de tierra batida, y se han encontrado en el lugar una cuba para agua, un crisol, y numerosos flanes obtenidos con moldes univalvos. La preparación de los cospeles consistía en recortarlos, volver a cocerlos a 500º, martillearlos, y finalmente pulirlos en un bloque de gres, untados en una pasta de arcilla o de ceniza húmeda. El proceso daba calidad al producto final, dificultando las falsificaciones.

El lugar ocupado por la ceca de Atenas en época clásica no ha sido convenientemente aclarado[113]. Sin embargo, hay dos edificios en el Ágora relacionados con la acuñación de moneda en época helenística y romana, uno en uso desde el siglo IV hasta el cambio de era y el otro del siglo III d.C. El primero de ellos es un edificio con muros sólidos, patio y habitaciones y de unos 29x27 m[114], y el segundo es un edificio algo mayor donde se han encontrado restos de acuñación[115]. A pesar de estas evidencias nuestro conocimiento de los talleres importantes, es nulo o muy parco como sucede con Lugdunum y Tesalónica, y puede ser difícil distinguirlas de talleres de falsificadores como en los casos de Augusta Raurica y Londinium[116].

La ceca de la Roma republicana se encontraba en el Capitolio[117], en las proximidades del templo de Juno Moneta, tal y como indica Livio[118], lo que significa que en época de Augusto todavía estaba allí. El incendio del Capitolio en el 80 d.C. fue el origen de numerosas intervenciones y muy posiblemente del traslado de la ceca. En el año 84 se comenzó a acuñar el tipo de reverso moneta augusta[119], probablemente conmemorando de algún modo la apertura del nuevo taller. El traslado que llevaría la ceca a la Regio Tertia, bajo la actual iglesia de S. Clemente y cerca del Coliseo, no debe ser anterior a los flavios. Es la única ceca de la que tenemos constancia que fue construida con este fin[120]. El edificio excavado es de planta rectangular y de unos 65x30 m, del que resultarían unos 638m2 sin el patio, tiene unas veinte tabernae, y quizás una segunda planta con talleres para aprendizaje de oficios y archivo[121] (fig. 9). Su planta coincide con la de un fragmento perdido de la planta de mármol severiana, donde se lee MON dentro de un edificio rectangular con patio y tabernae (fig. 10).


The physical space where working is one of the least known of coinage in ancient ways. Infrastructure and space required would be minimal (Fig. 8), the volume of emissions and its continuity, is tentatively determined that occupy buildings to develop the work, as in the case of some Iberian emissions, or that exist for permanent venues same as happened in the city of Rome. A variant were itinerant campaign mints or those in the low-empire moved along with the imperial court. Cyclical mints were also those who devoted themselves to imitation. [111]

Marseille has been recently excavated a metallurgical facility to prepare puddings, which was located within the military arsenal or war harbor. [112] The blanks are recovered bronze metal coin that started in Massalia in the second half of the s. III B.C. The floor was clay, and found in the place a Cuba to water, a pot, and numerous puddings obtained univalves molds. The preparation consisted of the blanks cut them, re-baking them at 500 °, martillearlos, and finally polishing of a block of ceramic, dipped in a slurry of wet clay or ash. The process gave the final product quality, preventing counterfeiting.

The place occupied by the mint of Athens in classical times not being properly clarified [113]. However, there are two buildings in the Agora related coinage in Hellenistic and Roman times, one in use since the fourth century to the turn of time and the other the third century AD The first is a building with solid walls, patio room and a 29x27 m [114], and the second is a somewhat larger building where remains have been found of issue. [115] Despite this evidence our understanding of important workshops is null or very sparing as happens with Lugdunum and Thessaloniki, and can be difficult to distinguish from workshops counterfeiters as in cases of Londinium Augusta Raurica and [116].

The mint of Republican Rome was in the Capitol [117], near the temple of Juno Moneta, as Livio [118] states, which means that in times of Augustus was still there. The burning of the Capitol in 80 A.D. was the origin of many interventions and quite possibly the transfer of the mint. In 84 he began to mint the kind of monetary back augusta [119], probably somehow commemorating the opening of the new shop. The move would take the mint to Regio Tertia, under the present church of S. Clemente near the Colosseum and must not be earlier than the Flavian. It is the only mint to our knowledge that was built for this purpose [120]. The excavated building is rectangular and about 65x30 m, which would be about 638m2 without the patio, has twenty tabernae, and perhaps a second floor with workshops and apprenticeships file [121] (Fig. 9). Its plan coincides with the fragment of a lost plant Severan marble, which reads MON within a rectangular courtyard building and tabernae (fig. 10).


Edited by Lion.Kanzen
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I started the building (Iberian) (Got the shape), I'm gonna see with Enrique how to improve it. Should I make a new thread in the ART ?

Problem is with temple, that I don't understand how to do textures...

Edited by stanislas69
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Lion rocket. Stanislas sorceror. (my current impression ...)

I think we can have units inside, that comes out with an animation, used as props. Which are graphically speaking a very nice addiditon. If we can't that means I will never be able to finish the rotary mill.

True. That's possible as a prop. Only animations, so no self-thinking units but well, that's already pretty cool.

Also, if they are attacked they could automatically switch to the attack animation . Though I don't know if they do damage if they are only a prop (of a building in this case).

Supporting Romulus' position, you are doing an awesome job, colleagues. I'm really impressed a lot. Thx.

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