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Lion.Kanzen

List of mercenaries

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@Alexandermb mira las referencias.

Tampoco tenemos Iliricos,especialmente esos cascos/hielmo.

NO tenemos armas piratas y el escudo no se si tengamos uno pequeño. y esas espadas.

También no tenemos guerreros ponticos.

No tenemos ningún catafracto.

No tenemos guerreros germanos. con el peinado que caracterizaba a los hombres libres.

No tenemos mercenarios árabes , bereberes ...

No tenemos gladiadores hombres y mujeres.

No tenemos mujeres escitas 

No tenemos iberos romanizados...

No tenemos mercenarios sármatas.

 

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Garamantes

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Balearic slingers

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Historically, the Balearic Slingers became famous throughout the mediterranean world due to their increadible skill in battle. These skills prompted the Carthaginians and Romans to use them whenever they were able to do so. A good example of the skill that won them renow is Diodorus Siculus' chronicle of the Battle of Eknomos in 311BC: "But when Hamilcar saw that his men were being overpowered and that the Greeks in constantly increasing number were making their way into the camp, he brought up his slingers, who came from the Balearic Islands and numbered at least a thousand. By hurling a shower of great stones, they wounded many and even killed not a few of those who were attacking, and they shattered the defensive armour of most of them. For these men, who are accustomed to sling stones weighing a mina, contributed a great deal toward victory in battle, as they practised constantly with the sling since childhood. In this way they drove the Greeks from the camp and defeated them. Their equipment for fighting consists of three slings, and of these they keep one around the head, another around the belly, and the third in the hands. In the business of war they hurl much larger stones than do any other slingers, and with such force that the missile seems to have been shot, as it were, from a catapult; consequently, in their assaults upon walled cities, they strike the defenders on the battlements and disable them, and in pitched battles they crush both shields and helmets and every kind of protective armour. And they are so accurate in their aim that in the majority of cases they never miss the target before them. The reason for this is the continual practice which they get from childhood, in that their mothers compel them, while still young boys, to use the sling continually; for there is set up before them as a target a piece of bread fastened to a stake, and the novice is not permitted to eat until he has hit the bread, whereupon he takes it from his mother with her permission and devours it!!".

 

Lybian mercenaries. Adyrmachidae

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Beginning on the side of Egypt, the first Libyans are the Adyrmachidae.1 These people have, in most points, the same customs as the Egyptians,

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From Egypt to Mauretania live the tribes of coastal North Africa known as a whole to the Greeks as Libyans, after their word for Africa, Libya. Their brave warriors fight with throwing darts, javelins and spears, and while poorly equipped for heavy combat they carry swords, a common weapon among Libyans. Their varied appearance is represented by their shields in different shapes and sizes made from the skins of cows, goats, elephants and ostriches, as well as their appearance. Some examples include the Maceans who wear their hair as a crest and the Maxyans who shave the left side of their head. These men are swift and sure, but cannot stand in the face of heavily armed opponents, or the weight of cavalry. Lead them well, general, and they will win you battles!

Historically these men come from a vast variety of tribes; Adyrmachidae, Gilligammae, Asbystae, Cabalians, Aushisae, Ammonions, Nasamonions, Psylli, Garamantines, Lotophagi, Maceans, Machlyans, Atlantes, Atarantians, Auseans, Gyzantians, Maxyans, Zavecians and Masylies, to name but a few. Most Libyan tribes were remarked by ancient authors as using light skirmishers of some form. According to Herodotus, Ammonion skirmishers were called darters. Libyan skirmishers were present in the war between Carthage and Agathocles in 310 BC as well as throughout the Punic wars, noted in Hannibal's army as skirmishing in front of the army in the initial engagement alongside Balearic skirmishers and slingers.

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Lucanian.(Italiotes)

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Tarantine cavalry.

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Taranto, in Magna Graecia, has a rich history. Founded in 706BC as Taras, it began as the home of the Partheniae, Spartans exiled due to their impure bloodlines. Fortunately, the colony was able to breed superb warhorses, and so its warriors duly grew in reputation. Tarantine cavalry could be combined well with a slow-moving phalanx, providing a rapid and flexible defensive screen for the hoplites’ exposed flanks. Their suitability for such a role, in addition to a growing need for mercenaries in the armies of the Hellenistic world, saw that the Tarantines were much sought after. By the 3rd century BC there was some evidence to suggest that they no longer came exclusively from Taranto itself, the word 'Tarantine' referring more to the unit’s tactics and weaponry rather than its geographic origins.

Sabean Mercenaries

 

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The warriors of the Sabaean region were light infantry, cavalry and archers as mercenaries and auxiliaries for the Roman Empire. Dressed desert-fashion, they were entirely familiar with and comfortable in arid places. This was secondary however, to their reputation as mostly reliable fighters, of far more worth than ordinary citizens or levies. This was due to the independence that the Sabaean kingdom maintained from the 8th century BC to AD275. This record was based on military might as well as diplomacy and the spice trade including frankincense and myrrh. Never conquered by Rome, Sabaean warriors still found work as mercenaries and auxiliaries in Roman service.

Kushite / Ethiopians mercenaries.

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http://europabarbarorum.wikia.com/wiki/Aithiopikoi_Toxotai_(Ethiopian_Archers)

Rhodian Slinger.

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Perhaps not as famous as their counterparts from the Balearics, Rhodian slingers were nevertheless famed for their skill. As Rhodes was protected by the sea, slingers could hire themselves out as mercenaries across the Mediterranean. They were deadly at 100 metres and could hit targets at 400 metres. Unencumbered by armour, they were highly mobile and could outpace or at least match the pace of most other infantry. Rhodian slingers sometimes made use of small shields with a single handgrip to protect them from any return fire. During the Greco-Persian Wars shaped shot gave the Greeks, including the Rhodians, an advantage over the Persians. This proved essential in covering the retreat of the Ten Thousand, after Cyrus the Younger’s death at the Battle of Cunaxa in 401BC. The Rhodian slingers were the only missile troops able to engage the enemy with some safety, as Cretan archers and Greek javelinmen had the same range as enemy missile troops.

 

Numidians (infantry, cavalry)

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Numidia produces some of the finest cavalry in all Africa, if not the Western Mediterranean world. Armed with javelins, these mounted skirmishers can be a nightmare for an opponent as it can prove practically impossible to pin them down in combat. Their tactics are to pelt the enemy with deadly volleys of javelins and then swiftly retreat when charged. Essentially, if the enemy stands, he is slaughtered with javelins; if they run, the Numidian cavalry can ride them down!

Instinctive riders, the Numidians are famed for not using a saddle or reins. Instead, they use only a stick to direct their horses. Nevertheless, they are said to maneuver with the "grace of a flock of birds". Having adapted to the broken expanses of their homelands, Numidian cavalry have great stamina and they are also experts in their form of the Cantabrian circle.

Historically, like their foot companions, the Numidian cavalry were not composed of trained soldiers like the Roman and Hellenistic armies, but shepherds, husbandmen, farmers and the like. As a result, these men were easily routed and fared poorly whenever engaged in close quarters. However, they were extremely proficient skirmishers and their continued hit and run tactics and skill as riders resulted in overcoming much better armed, armoured, and trained soldiers.

While the fleetness of the Numidians was primarily intended to aid them in retreating when necessary from combat, it also made them excellent cavalry for chasing down fleeing opponents and capable of quickly crossing the battlefield to render aid where necessary. The generals who recognized and properly utilized these skills became famous, and in turn made the Numidian cavalry famous. Numidian cavalry were present in almost every engagement of the Second Punic War and many of the First as well as ensuring Roman dominance in the Third. Numidian cavalry continued to serve as reliable Roman auxiliaries well into the Roman Empire, serving as far away as Dacia under the Emperor Trajan and appearing on his eponymous column.

Bactrian (Achemenid) / Greek.

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Spoiler

The Bactrian plain is to the west of the Hindu Kush in what is now Afghanistan. It first enters records of antiquity through Ctesias, a Greek historian (circa 400BC), who falsely claimed that the Assyrian King Ninus defeated the Bactrians in 2140BC. A fertile and developed land, Bactria was prosperous and so, during the expansion of the Achaemenid Empire, it inevitably drew the interest of the newly crowned Cyrus the Great. Under the Achaemenids, Bactria enjoyed the special privilege of being ruled by the crown prince, or heir-apparent to the royal line. It has been suggested that before the Persians, however, Bactria was ruled by the Median Kingdom before they, too, fell to the expansionist Achaemenids. Like many other Persian satrapies, Bactria attempted to rebel against its overlords in the wake of Darius III's defeat by Alexander the Great, only to be subdued by the victorious general.

Scythians. cavalry, missile, archers, heavy cavalry.

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With raiding as a way of life for many tribes, mounted archery was established early in eastern culture, producing some highly effective warriors. While foot archers could carry long, powerful bows, a mounted archer was a formidable fighter thanks to his composite bow. Constructed from layers of wood, sinew and animal horn, the composite bow was a much more powerful weapon than its size alone would suggest. In the hands of an expert an arrow on target was entirely capable of piercing chainmail armour. It did, however, require strength and care to use: in particular, it had to be kept away from damp. Military campaigns were usually fought during the summer and autumn, so bows were used during arid months. Archers could rest their weapons during the winter, taking good care of them before the next campaigning season.

 

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War Indian Elephants.

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War elephants had to be trained like men and cavalry horses to endure the noise and chaos of battle. Indian war elephants were larger than their African counterparts and strong enough to carry a 'howdah', or small wooden tower, on their backs. The driver sat astride the beast’s neck while two men, armed with javelins, were in the howdah. The African elephants of the period were a smaller, third species found in northern Africa, and now extinct; they were not the large, intractable wild creatures from sub-Saharan Africa which are familiar to us. The Indian variety first came to the Middle East when Seleucus, one of Alexander the Great’s Successors, invaded India in 305BC. As part of the peace treaty between the Seleucid dynasty and the Indian Mauryans, 500 war elephants came to the Seleucids. This corps remained an important part of the Seleucids’ army until their defeat by the Romans at Magnesia in 190BC. The subsequent peace saw the forfeiture of all the elephants to the Romans, and the Seleucids were forbidden from breeding any more.

Judean / Samarian

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As noted above, Judean mercenaries were also used and much prized, by both the Ptolemies and the Seleucids. This was at least in part due to the notable lack of love the Jews had for the local (Gentile) populations of these kingdoms. Their loyalty was strictly to their paymaster, and they had no compunction in using brutal force against the civilian population if called upon to crush dissent. Judeans fought as slingers and thureophoroi, and had a doughty reputation as fierce fighters.

 

Edited by Lion.Kanzen

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Nabateans /Hatra

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These men are rich enough to afford horses and have trained as archers since their youth. They are a mobile and deadly force especially in the desert, which tires their adversaries. Their arab horses, famous for their stamina and their light armour, make them capable to outrun any enemy. As such they are able to attack their foes from distance. Their skill and the light armoured nature of arid warfare make them some of the dangerous troops available to any Arab commander. Even if their arrows would run out, their lances can still finish off their fatigued enemies.

Some suggest the Nabataeans first came to prominence by courtesy of their new camel saddles, making them superior travellers and providing them with superior camel archers. While their camel archers might be their most iconic unit and certainly more numerous, the superior speed, agility, intelligence and famous stamina of their horses make them the elite missile unit of northern Arabian armies. The horse especially trumps the camel when it comes to mêlée and charging.

 

Agrianes

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The Agrianes were a Paeonian tribe of fierce fighters. Known for their incredible dexterity and speed, they became an auxiliary infantry unit in the army of Alexander the Great. Carrying a clutch of javelins into battle, the Agrianes were able to move fast and strike hard. They wore little or no armour to hinder them and carried no shield. Alexander employed them time and time again as front line troops in many of his major battles, where they developed into an elite missile assault unit under the command of his general Attalus, proving especially effective in mountainous areas where agility was essential and the phalanx formation proved unwieldy. Carrying axes and knives that could also be used as climbing hooks, the Agrianes were exceptional not only at climbing and traversing difficult terrain, but also when assaulting man-made defences and walls. Fiercely loyal and extremely effective, they were also used to protect siege equipment before joining the crack hypaspists for the assault. Alexander rewarded the Agrianes for their service with the right to govern their own lands. Later an elite force of Agrianes fought for Antiochus at Raphia in 217BC against Ptolemy IV.

 

Umbrii

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The Umbri were an ancient mountain tribe from small, hilltop settlements along the central Apennines. Roman writers considered them to be more Gallic than Italic, but the Umbri's contact with the neighbouring Etruscan cities brought them closer to civilisation in their habits and level of technology. The Gallic newcomers and some ambitious Etruscan campaigns eventually forced the Umbri to migrate southward. According to Pliny the Elder, the Etruscans conquered three hundred Umbrian towns along their eastern border. Despite this loss of territory, the Umbri seem to have thrived, founding a number of settlements on high hills, which were naturally easy to defend and difficult to assault. Umbrians were never as aggressive as any of the neighbouring tribes, but nonetheless survived multiple invasions until their final absorption into the Roman Republic in 260BC.

 

Kushites mercenaries.

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Considered by some modern archaeologists to be the birthplace of civilisation itself, the ancient kingdom of Nubia lay between Egypt and modern-day central Sudan. Although much of the country was inhospitable desert, the tributaries of the Nile that flowed through it had fertile valley basins and it was there that Nubian culture flourished. As well as being a crucial water source, the Nile was the main trade route to Egypt for African ivory, animals, incense and other exotic riches. Living in such close proximity to the great river, the Nubians became excellent sailors, which ensured their nation's wealth through trade. Being Egypt’s neighbour, Nubia also became, at times, its greatest enemy, and the population were often enslaved and used as soldiers. In 750BC, Nubians even managed to conquer Egypt, and ruled for one hundred years - such was the deep rivalry that existed between the two. Consisting mainly of mercenaries, Nubian armies were famed for their aggression and fearlessness on the battlefield. Nubian archers even defeated the Romans, and their spearmen fought both against and alongside Ptolemaic armies. Eventually, the greatest threat to Nubia came not from war, but from the humble camel. Its introduction in the 2nd century AD greatly increased the power of nomadic desert tribes, lessening the importance of the Nile as a trade route. Subsequently, the kingdom went into decline.

 

Cappadocians (cav)

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Cappadocian horsemen could be found in many armies of Asia Minor, but were most common in the forces of Pontus and Armenia. Although the riders had scale armour and open helmets, so as not to impair their vision, their horses were unarmoured, allowing them a good degree of speed and manoeuvrability. They were certainly faster across ground than the heavy cataphracts used by eastern armies. These horsemen were most often placed on the flanks of an army to counter any enemy infantry skirmishers or light horse. Charges into spear or pike-armed phalanxes would have been stupid, and fatal. At the Battle of Gaugamela in 331BC, Cappadocian cavalry overwhelmed Alexander’s Asian and Greek mercenary cavalry, only to be halted by the Thessalians.

Parthians

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With raiding as a way of life for many tribes, mounted archery was established early in eastern culture, producing some highly effective warriors. While foot archers could carry long, powerful bows, a mounted archer was a formidable fighter thanks to his composite bow. Constructed from layers of wood, sinew and animal horn, the composite bow was a much more powerful weapon than its size alone would suggest. In the hands of an expert an arrow on target was entirely capable of piercing chainmail armour. It did, however, require strength and care to use: in particular, it had to be kept away from damp. Military campaigns were usually fought during the summer and autumn, so bows were used during arid months. Archers could rest their weapons during the winter, taking good care of them before the next campaigning season.

Sarmatians.

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Developed from the cavalry skills of their ancestors, the steppe lancers of the Scythian, or Saka, tribes and the Sarmatians were a type of heavy cavalry comparable to their Hellenic counterparts. They wore scale armour to protect themselves and their mounts, and used a long lance known as a kontos. This enabled them to deliver devastating charges in a fashion comparable to the Alexandrian Companion cavalry. The scale armour was made from horn, or later metal, and allowed the wearers to run down their western counterparts. They were still vulnerable to dense pike or spear-armed formations. Archery provided a solution: sustained volleys from skirmishing foot and horse archers were used to thin and spread out the enemy. At the Battle of Carrhae in 53BC, the tightly-packed Roman infantry were forced to spread out by Parthian archers, which enabled their cataphracts to charge and break an overconfident Roman force four times their number.

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Edited by Lion.Kanzen
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Illyrians Pirates.

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The fall of Liburnian domination in the Adriatic Sea and their final retreat to their ethnic region (Liburnia) were caused by the military and political activities of Dionysius the Elder of Syracuse (406 – 367 BC). The imperial power base of this Syracusan tyrant stemmed from a huge naval fleet of 300 tetreras and penteras. After he ended Carthaginian authority in Sicily, he turned against the Etruscans. He made use of the Celtic invasion of Italy, and the Celts became his allies in the Italian peninsula (386 - 385 BC). This alliance was crucial for his politics, then focusing on the Adriatic Sea, where the Liburnians still dominated. In light of this strategy, he established a few Syracusan colonies on the coasts of the Adriatic Sea: Adria at the mouth of Po river and Ancona at the western Adriatic coast, Issa on the outermost island of the central Adriatic archipelago (island of Vis) and others. Meanwhile, in 385-384 BC he helped colonists from the Greek island of Paros to establish Pharos (Starigrad) colony on the Liburnian island of Hvar, thus taking control of the important points and navigable routes in the southern, central and northern Adriatic.

This caused a simultaneous Liburnian resistance on both coasts, whether in their ethnic domain or on the western coast, where their possessions or interests were in danger. A great naval battle was recorded a year after the establishment of Pharos colony, by a Greek inscription in Pharos (384 – 383 BC) and by the Greek historian Diodorus Siculus (80 – 29 BC), initiated by conflicts between the Greek colonists and the indigenous Hvar islanders, who asked their compatriots for support. 10,000 Liburnians sailed out from their capital Idassa (Zadar), led by the Iadasinoi (people of Zadar), and laid siege to Pharos. The Syracusan fleet positioned in Issa was informed in time, and Greek triremes attacked the siege fleet, taking victory in the end. According to Diodorus, the Greeks killed more than 5,000 and captured 2,000 prisoners, ran down or captured their ships, and burned their weapons in dedication to their god.

 

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17 minutes ago, Lion.Kanzen said:

@Genava55 any Germanic mercenary?

Yes, I suggested already one of those Germanic cavalryman from the tribes close to the Rhine, mixing Celtic and Germanic stuff. The Bastanae and Sciri raiding the Carpatians and Black Sea region were as well similar with mixture of Celtic and Germanic weapons. So they could be represented by the same unit. 

Else, a Suebian mercenary with a Suebian knot. Or a Chatti warrior with short hair (Tacitus description in Germania). 

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7 minutes ago, Genava55 said:

Yes, I suggested already one of those Germanic cavalryman from the tribes close to the Rhine, mixing Celtic and Germanic stuff. The Bastanae and Sciri raiding the Carpatians and Black Sea region were as well similar with mixture of Celtic and Germanic weapons. So they could be represented by the same unit. 

Else, a Suebian mercenary with a Suebian knot. Or a Chatti warrior with short hair (Tacitus description in Germania). 

Its true.,. Sorry but now we can keep these here in the official list.

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Hellenistic cappadocisn cavalry

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Cappadocian cavalry.

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These Katpatuka Asabara provide Pontos with the mounted core of its army and are the shock arm of its cavalry. They ride to war in scale armour and shield, wielding spear and axe in the old Persian style. They form a reliable medium cavalry for which a good commander will find many uses.

Historically, Katpatuka Asabara comes from old Imperial Persian nobles that the Alexandrian conquest did not dispossess and still hold their old estates. The high cost of warhorse and gear required the revenues of landed nobility to be capable of affording service to the king. The excellent Median horse was raised in Kappadokia and provided the mounts for these men. Median horses were noted for their size and strength, although not particularly tall, about 14 or 15 hands. They had large heads and strong necks with most being chestnuts, browns or blacks. Persian horse manes were clipped short, like those of the mounted archers of other nations, so it would not interfere with the action of shooting. The tails were tied up to prevent it being grabbed by the enemy. The forelock was left long and tied with ribbon to form a plume above the head. The Kappadokian plain provided the grasslands and rich pastures needed for good quality cavalry and the Achaemenid Persians granted imperial estates throughout Anatolia for the raising of Satrapal cavalry forces. With the fall of the old Persian empire these men found themselves as lords of a new land, serving the Iranian dynasty of Pontos.

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Armenian situation did lead the regent subsequently to limit Neoptolemus' authority. He had proven ineffective as a leader.

At first, Eumenes made little headway with either the troops or their com- mander (Plut. En. 4. 3). Roisman (2012: 121) suggests that the Macedonians did not follow Eumenes' lead initially because they remained loyal to their commander Neoptolemus, but this is unlikely. Eumenes was there because they were apparently already insolent and disobedient (see above). They had not followed the orders of Neoptolemus and they continued this behavior until Eumenes changed the game by creating a substantial cavalry force. Eumenes raised a force of 6300 Cappadocian cavalry through the use of outright gifts and the promise of immunity from taxation (Plut. £um. 4. 3-4). Even though the Cappadocian unit was created as an “opposing force” to the Macedonian infantry, the context makes this more of a counterpoise to them. There is also no evidence that the Macedonians resented Eumenes' cavalry force. “Amazed” and “emboldened” is hardly resentment. Neoptolemus' insolence resulted from his failure and the appearance of the Greek Eumenes to sort things out. For a Macedonian aristocrat this must have been especially galling; indeed, it may even have been during this operation that Neoptolemus uttered the state- ment, found in Plutarch (£um. 1. 6), belittling Eumenes' position as secretary under Alexander.

Eumenes' concessions to the Cappadocians and his confidence in their mili- tary ability secured him a very loyal province. At the time of his death, even though Eumenes had not been in the area for almost three years, his mother, wife, and children were still resident in Cappadocia (Nepos Eum. 13. 4). The loy- alty of the native populations to those of Alexander's Successors who treated them with favor could be great, as was the case with the Pisidians and Alcetas (Diod. 18. 46. 2-47. 3). Accommodating local elites was a policy followed by Alexander the Great himself to great effect (see Briant 2002: 852, 869-70; Anson 20134: 151-2). Regarding the ability of the Cappadocians, Darius had used Cappadocian cavalry against Alexander (Arr. Anab. 3. 8. 5, 11. 7; Curt. 4. 12. 12), and Ariarathes had possessed 15000 cavalry in 322 (Diod. 18. 16. 2). The addition of Eumenes' Cappadocian cavalry rekindled the Macedonians' enthu- siasm for the campaign (Plut. Eum. 4. 4). While there is no further word of difficulties in Armenia and Perdiccas left Neoptolemus in command (cf. Diod.

https://books.google.hn/books?id=wzkLCgAAQBAJ&pg=PA91&lpg=PA91&dq=cappadocian+cavalry&source=bl&ots=X2OtgPzvkI&sig=ACfU3U3TzWPiv6CJEs4msXS9UcK4sLobqg&hl=es&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjM88m2hNXkAhXpmeAKHW5oCJYQ6AEwE3oECAgQAQ#v=onepage&q=cappadocian cavalry&f=false

Eumenes of Cardia: A Greek among Macedonians

Edited by Lion.Kanzen

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Carians

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The Greek historian Herodotus recorded that Carians themselves believed to be aborigines of Caria but they were also, by general consensus of ancient sources, a maritime people before being gradually pushed inland.[5] Plutarch mentions the Carians as being referred to as "cocks" by the Persians on account of their wearing crests on their helmets; the epithet was expressed in the form of a Persian privilege when a Carian soldier responsible for killing Cyrus the Younger was rewarded by Artaxerxes II (r. 405/404–359/358 BC) with the honor of leading the Persian army with a golden @#$% on the point of his spear.[6]

According to Thucydides, it was largely the Carians who settled the Cyclades prior to the Minoans. The Middle Bronze Age (MMI–MMII) expansion of the Minoans into this region seems to have come at their expense. Intending to secure revenue in the Cyclades, Minos of Knossos established a navy with which he established his first colonies by taking control of the Hellenic sea and ruling over the Cyclades. In doing so, Minos expelled the Carians, many of which had turned to piracy as a way of life. During the Athenian purification of Delos,[clarification needed] all graves were exhumed and it was found that more than half were Carians (identified by the style of arms and the method of interment).[7]

According to Strabo, Carians, of all the "barbarians", had a particular tendency to intermingle with the Greeks,

"This was particularly the case with the Carians, for, although the other peoples were not yet having very much intercourse with the Greeks nor even trying to live in Hellenic fashion or to learn our language ... yet the Carians roamed throughout the whole of Greece serving on expeditions for pay. ... and when they were driven thence [from the islands] into Asia, even here they were unable to live apart from the Greeks, I mean when the Ionians and Dorians later crossed over to Asia." (Strabo 14.2.28)

Archaeologists also confirmed the presence of Carians in Sardis, Rhodes, and in Egypt where they served as mercenaries of the Pharaoh. In Rhodes, specifically, a type of Carian chamber-tomb known as a Ptolemaion may be attributed to a period of Carian hegemony on the island.[21] Despite this period of increased archaeological activity, the Carians still appear not to have been an autochthonous group of Anatolia since both the coastal and interior regions of Caria were virtually unoccupied throughout prehistoric times

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Spiro Managos (310 BC-) was a Ptolemaic Egyptian army officer who commanded a cohort of Carian axemen in Pharaoh Ptolemy II Philadelphus' army during his campaign against the Cyrenaicans in 272 BC.

More Carian details.

 

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ad5a9965639575aa726871ab970b7333.pngEastern Pike

Add the cap (Phrygian and Illyrian shield )

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Pantodapoi Phalangitai are the standard levy of the Seleukidos Kingdom and others influenced by the Diadochoi, including Pontos. They are tough and reliable infantry, but are prone to rebellion and discontent, and are hence more expensive than their Makedonian contemporaries. They are mostly levies of Ioudaioi, Syrioi, and Persai descent that are co-opted into the army. They fight as pikemen, with a soft leather cuirass, pikes, round Illyrian style shields and Phrygian caps. This makes them a viable pike unit, though they are less disciplined and more prone to flee than more reliable Hellenes and Makedones that make up the Pezhetairoi. They can be counted upon to present a solid wall of spear points to the enemy, but their lack of discipline and intensive training makes them even more prone to a flanking attack.

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On the other hand the infantry statistics make it seem probable that the eastern governors had a few Macedonians, and had begun to put into practice Alexander's idea of a mixed Macedonian-Asiatic phalanx: Eumenes, however, rightly judged that for his pur- poses a solid pure-Macedonian kernel was more valuable, and we therefore find the Asiatic phalanx separate at Paraitacene.* Eumenes was now ready for Antigonus.

Antigonus for his part had not been idle. When he heard of Eumenes” escape, 'he set out with a picked force of 20,000 infantry and 4000 horse, intending to crush him before he became strong; but he was not quick enough and was obliged

1 Diod. xix. 14. 5; 27. 5.

2 Ibid. 14. 6 sqq. 3 Ibid. 33-34.

It thus seems almost certain that Eumenes must have separated the Asiatics from the Macedonians out of the 8500 infantry from the East.

Cf. too the Alexander festival at Persis (Diod. xix. 22). The outer ring was allotted to “the mercenaries and the mass of the allies ” (i.e. the Asiatics); in the second ring were “the Silver Shields and the Companions who had served with Alexander.” These latter must have been foot companions, because the cavalry were in the third ring.

 

Edited by Lion.Kanzen

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Mercenary War Elephants

Giant Elephants with archers mounted in boxed howdahs, these beasts provide a fearsome weapon for armies poorly equipped to deal with them. As they close on the petrified enemy, archers fire deadly arrows from atop giving these beasts the unique tag of being both heavy cavalry and missile cavalry. Keep them away from spearmen and fire and they will positively ruin any other unit on the battlefield. These beasts frighten horses and so get a bonus fighting cavalry.

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Imported from the regions far south of Aigyptos or from the mountain forests of northwestern Africa, forest elephants are an exceptionally valuable resource in combat, used mainly by the Ptolemaioi and Qarthadastim. Towering over most other creatures, they can easily scare men and horses alike, with both their size and smell, though elaborate bells and trappings often add to their intimidation. Such corps are directed by their own mahouts riding behind their heads, often a native of their own country who has spent at least two years training his beast from capture. The mahout is armored to better protect against the obvious assault that generally comes against him, launched to bypass the thick natural armor of his mount.

Elephants are best used as cavalry screens for your army, where their presence can scare away enemy cavalry. They can also be used to ram through an enemy battle line, though they are less useful when faced with loose order or phalanx infantry. Pyrrhos of Epeiros even innovated a tactic of flank screens when he fought the Romans at Heraklea. Beyond their obvious use against enemy infantry or cavalry, they can also be used in siege combat; battering down gates, though they're highly vulnerable to better prepared installations. Their greatest vulnerability is against skirmishers, slingers and archers, who can pepper them with missiles - eventually toppling them by virtue of their cumulative impact. To counter the effect of enemy skirmishers, it is often wise to array your own in opposition, or to maintain constant attacks upon each individual group.

Historically, the use of elephants in war was largely contained to India, but after the battle of Hydaspes that changed. Though Alexandros never cared over much for the animals, his successors were very much in favor of their use, organizing their own elephants into a distinct corps under their own "elephantarchos". The forest elephant was used in battle after the Ptolemaioi dynasty established itself in Egypt. Being cut off from India by their Seleukid rivals, the Ptolemaioi needed another source of elephants and sent expeditions to the Horn of Africa to gather Forest Elephants and later they established “elephant stations” to make sure the Ptolemaic armies were well supplied.

 

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These infantry troops lack the speed and manoeuvrability of horse archers, instead relying on their powerful long composite bow. They are only lightly armoured with a quilted linen cuirass worn over a brightly embroidered long sleeved tunic. Trained from birth in the use of the deadly eastern composite bow, these men know their worth and are often to be found among the Parthian garrisons and in their field armies.

Historically, the Persians may among nations undoubtedly be placed in the first rank of archers and the Marda Shivatir are their elite. They are recruited from the more settled elements of the Parthian tribal host in the core of the Parthian homeland and surrounding regions. It seems likely that at least some of these infantry were those of the Parthians too impoverished to afford to fight mounted, or those whose mounted skills had declined as a result of settled life to such an extent that it was no longer possible for them to serve in their traditional role.

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Mardian Archers were recruited from the tribal Mardians of the Iranian mountains bordering Caspian Sea, and they were used by the Persian Empire as their bowmen. They played a major role in the Conquests of Alexander, with the Mardians being used by the Persians until their conquest and by Alexander during his campaigns against the Dahae and Paurava as auxilliaries.

 

Mardian archers 

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Hircanian Hillmen.

Resultado de imagen para hyrcanian hillmenResultado de imagen para Persian axeman

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(Hyrkanian Hillmen) Hyrkanian Hillmen are bands of warriors from the various clans in Hyrkania, or northern Persia. These men are highly adept at guerrilla warfare and can serve a general, be he Hellene or Iranian, as fierce light infantry. They wear simple tunics and are armed with spears, axes, and shields

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Hyrcania (/hərˈkeɪniə/) or Verkâna was a satrapy located in the territories of the present day Gilan, Mazandaran and Golestan provinces of Iran and part of Turkmenistan, lands south of the Caspian Sea. To the Greeks, the Caspian Sea was the "Hyrcanian Sea".

Hyrcania (Ὑρκανία) is the Greek name for the region, a borrowing from the Old Persian Verkâna as recorded in Darius the Great's Behistun Inscription (522 BCE), as well as in other Old Persian cuneiform inscriptions. Verkā means "wolf" in Old Iranian, cf. Avestan vəhrkō, Gilaki and Mazandarani Verk, Modern Persian gorg, and Sanskrit Vŗka (वृक). See also Warg. Consequently, Hyrcania means "Wolf-land". The name was extended to the Caspian Sea and underlie the name of the city Sari (Zadracarta), the first and then-largest city in northern Iran (Mazandaran, Golestan and Gilan) and the capital of ancient Hyrcania.

The province of Hyrcania, strictly speaking, was the small tract also known as Gorgan (or Zadracarta) in ancient Persia. Gorgan, according to the British historian Sir William Ouseley (who quotes the medieval Persian geographer Hamdallah Mustawfi), and James Morier, was a Farsi name that (like Hyrcania) signified "land of wolves." [3] Sometimes the name Hyrcania was broadened to include the surrounding region of Golestan.

Of the wildlife, Ouseley states that Hyrcania included species or sub-species of: tiger (babr), wild boar (guraz), fox (rubah), jackal (shegkal) and wolf. Accordingly, the very first thing that he saw, on entering a village of Hyrcania, was the carcasse of a large wolf, which had been shot just half an hour before his arrival, and which "grinned horribly a ghastly grin"; thus confirming the mistrel's claim that "everywhere the pleasures of the chase may be enjoyed."[3] In antiquity, Hyrcania was infested with panthers and tigers so fierce and cruel as to give rise to a proverb concerning fierce and unrelenting men: that they had suckled from Hyrcanian tigers. The poet Virgil refers to this in his Aeneid. Representing Dido chiding Aeneas, he states: "False as thou art, and more than false, forsworn, Not sprung from noble blood, nor goddess born, But hewn from harden'd entrails of a rock! And rough Hyrcanian tigers gave thee suck!"[3]

Hyrcania was also famed for an axe called the tabr. A people called the Tapyri or Tabari, inhabited a district in Hyrcania, and may have taken their name from the axe. According to Ouseley, the name of the part in which the Tabari lived, namely, Tabristan, or Tabaristan, signifies the country of wood.

https://ipfs.io/ipfs/QmXoypizjW3WknFiJnKLwHCnL72vedxjQkDDP1mXWo6uco/wiki/Hyrcania.html

Edited by Lion.Kanzen

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