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balduin last won the day on June 30

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  1. The current model of the defense tower is a blend of the Debre Damo bell tower (color/size), the chapel of Bet Danaghel (architecture) and the Gondarian defense tower (size). I think, @m7600 did a really good job on the defense tower.
  2. Keep in mind Amba Geshen and Amba Mariam used both mountains as part of their physical security design. They were not build to defend a city or palace. Maybe, you can incorporate Ambas in the mod, by making a fortress sitting on top of a larger earth platform. The fortress itself should have a gate, just like in the photograph and some buildings (churches, monasteries) in it.
  3. The Ethiopians had Fortresses on mountaintops. Amba Geshen was one. Amba Geshen was used as prison and to keep the imperial treasury. The fortress was captured by Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi, from the Adal Sultanate. The capture attempts and final capture are mentioned in the Futuh al-Habasha. In addition, Francisco Álvares described Amba Geshen. Today, nothing is left of Amba Geshen, other than two rebuild churches. However, during the British expedition to Abyssinia (Ethiopia) in 1868, British soldiers took a photograph of the gate of Amba Mariam or fortress of Magdala [1], before burning it down. source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:1867-68_Abyssinia_Expedition,_(47),_Magdala,_sentry_post_over_gate,_(Custom).jpg The walls around Amba Mariam, don't look very different from the city walls of Harar Jugol or walled villages. For more information have a look at the topic I posted earlier: [1] Mariam and Magdala are both a name for Mary, the mother of Jesus.
  4. Yes, that is exactly what I meant. Furthermore, the Yemrehana Krestos Church which was build 11th or 12th century. According to Wikipedia: source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Yemerehne_kristos,_esterno,_01.jpg The Yemrehana Krestos Church is a couple of miles/kilometer away from Lalibela. The architectural style not an departure from the Aksumit style, but rather the next iteration towards the rock-hewn churches of Lalibela.
  5. I read your sources again, less tired than the last time. Yes, they most likely used chain mail to some degree. However, it is still surprising to not see them in the wall paintings or later photographs. Maybe, wearing chain mail a fashion trend during the end of the 15th and beginning of the 16th century. Do you know if there are any descriptions of archer in Futuh Al-Habasa or by Francisco Álvares?
  6. Why are fortresses so important to you? I do not see a problem having a faction which does not have fortresses. I agree with @Ultimate Aurelian. In my opinion the world is changing constantly. Civilizations rise and fall. Nations are created and disappear [1]. However, not all the buildings, traditions and cultural aspects disappear. They coexist with newer buildings, traditions and cultural aspects. During the Solomonic period in Ethiopia, there were buildings from the Kingdom of Axum, the Zagwe dynasty and the Solomonic dynasty. Because the world is changing constantly, I see picking a time frame and simply sticking to it for the purpose of a 0 A.D. mod as essential. Try to understand how the civilizations might have looked like during the time frame you picked. Simply get inspired by the historical and archeological references in the design of units, buildings and ships. In my view it is very interesting that the Ethiopians have such a wide variety of buildings, because they used different building materials. I would embrace the difference and make it part of the mod. [1] For example Sudan and South Sudan are pretty new nations, formerly belonging together.
  7. The Solomonic Dynasty and the Zagweans are both Christian dynasties. In my opinion the cultural change from one dynasty to another was very minimal. I assume the biggest change from one Dynasty to another was the bloodline of he Emperor. In addition, "The church of Genneta Maryam, which is traditionally believed to have been built by Yekuno Amlak" Furthermore, the Sacred Landscapes of Tigray has 121 rock-hewn churches dating anywhere between the 5th and 14th century AD. Rock-hewn churches are very common in Ethiopia. In addition, I think they survived over several hundred years, simply because they are build from the rock.
  8. I actually think they used some quilted cotton armors. However, I was unable to find anything definitive. Almost all the wall paintings from the Ethiopian churches show Ethiopian warriors without chainmails. Even later in photographs and engravings none of them show warriors with chainmails. However, what you see a lot with the Portuguese arrival is guns. The Ethiopians were very fast in adopting guns. What surprises me is, that the Ethiopians were more willing to accept weapons from Christian empires, than from the Muslims.
  9. Yes, you are right. Yes, you are right again. However, unless you implement the people from the Swahili coast, what ships should the Kingdom of Zimbabwe have? One trick would be make them mercenary ships from the people of the Swahili coast.
  10. The title of the Ethiopian Emperor was nəgusä nägäst which means Kings of Kings. This title should be understood literally. For example, the Sultanat of Ifat was a Muslim "Kindgdom". Ifat rebelled against Amda Seyon I, who defeated the rebels of Ifat. Afterwards Amda Seyon I decided who can become king, he selected members of the Walashma dynasty, the same dynasty rebelling against him. Basically, Ifat was more or less a Kindgdom in the Ethiopian Kindgdom. The major difference between both was the religion. The Ethiopians were Christians and the people of the Sultanat of Ifat Muslims. Ifat was rich because of the sea trade with Asian and Arabic countries. The trading ships used were dhows. They used the same trading network as the Zimbabweans. Therefore both the Zimbabweans and Ethiopians should have the dhow as trading ship:
  11. According to Wikipedia the Kingdom of Zimbabwe had many Asian and Arabic goods. That means they needed to get them by ship. The monsoon 'trade winds' allowed merchants to travel between Asia (especially India) and East Africa. The following map shows the trade routes. Many of them went over the ocean. Makoro are good for fishing, but not long distance trade routes. For trading dhows where used. There are several different types of dhows, some for fishing some for trading. source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Dhow_znz.jpg source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Dhow01.JPG Baggala (large dhow): source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Sd2-baggala.JPG Dhows should be the trading vessels for both the Zambians and the Ethiopians. As both Kingdoms where connected by the same trading network.
  12. The Kingdom of Zimbabwe was according to this map landlocked. However, the Zambezi river flows through the country, as well as several other rivers. The Zambezi ends up in the Indian Ocean. source: https://www.themaparchive.com/great-zimbabwe-c-1000.html Zambia fishing boats: source: https://artofsafari.travel/what-to-do/luxury-safaris-zambia/lower-zambezi-national-park/tiger-fishing-zambia/ Drinking, fishing, washing, transporting: the Zambezi River provides many services for resident people in its basin (photo credit: ETH Zurich/Elisa Calamita/Davide Vanzo) source: https://blogs.ethz.ch/ETHambassadors/2019/05/23/understanding-the-role-of-big-rivers-in-africa/ source: https://kevdieenglesman.wordpress.com/2012/06/01/zambezi-tiger-fishing/ source: https://www.internationalrivers.org/blogs/1104/the-zambezi-river-drained-bone-dry source: https://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-local-people-fishing-village-zambezi-river-caprivi-namibia-africa-30529047.html source: https://www.gettyimages.de/detail/foto/zambezi-fisherman-lizenzfreies-bild/1075568204 source: https://neweralive.na/posts/fishing-moratorium-effected-in-zambezi source: https://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-local-fisherman-zambezi-river-kasane-caprivi-namibia-africa-travel-30529071.html This boat type is called Makoro. In Zambia they still make them out of wood. source:https://vimeo.com/74689659 Great Zimbabwe did occupy parts of Botswana. Dombshaba is evidence of their reach. I think the Makoro should be the fishing boat of the Zimbabweans.
  13. The Bozo people live mostly along the Niger River in Mali as well as the seasonal Lake Débo. They are the fishermen of Mali. They use a canoe (or pirogue) for fishing and transporting goods. source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Pirogue_010.jpg source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Pêcheur_Bozo.JPG source: http://www.galenfrysinger.com/niger_river.htm source: https://www.onhiatus.com/journal/journal.cgi/19981108.html source: http://www.ibike.org/bikeafrica/mali/essay/02-koulikoro.htm source: https://www.danheller.com/images/Africa/Mali/River/Slideshow/img5.html source: https://www.activityvillage.co.uk/mali source: http://gei.aerobaticsweb.org/mali_niger.html source: https://www.fotolibra.com/gallery/1354008/the-royal-niger-companys-expedition-everyday-scenes-on-the-river-niger-1897-a-market-canoe-arriv/ source: Gahna has similar boats: source: https://www.dreamstime.com/editorial-photo-local-residents-near-fishing-boat-ghana-cape-coast-west-africa-july-parked-boats-main-occupation-locals-part-image49616776 source: https://2012books.lardbucket.org/books/regional-geography-of-the-world-globalization-people-and-places/s10-03-west-africa.html Senegal as well: source: https://www.dreamstime.com/stock-photography-africa-senegal-atlantic-coast-fishermen-boats-image12703882 source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Admiral_François-Edmond_Pâris_-_1845_-_Senegal_Boat.png I think, that the design did not change much from over the last couple of centuries. It would be nice to include this boat type both as trading ship and fishing boat.
  14. There is another madras build by the Marinids in Fez: Bou Inania Madrasa. The mosque is considered the high point of Marinid architecture. source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Medersa_Bou_Inania_(4782232548).jpg source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Bou_inania_minaret.jpg For more pictures have a look at: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Bou_Inania_Madrasa,_Fes
  15. Actually, the mosque was huge for the time. Today, it might look small. However, at that time it was the largest mosque in Africa. "The Karaouine1 mosque at Fez was founded by Fatimah bint Muhammad al Fihri, the daughter of a wealthy citizen from Kairouan in Tunisia, in 859 A.D. [...] The original building was of modest dimensions, but it was greatly enlarged in the following century. Both its physical dimensions and its educational scope kept increasing from year to year. [...] [...] it attained its present size already under the Almoravid Sultan 'Ali ibn Yusuf (1106-1145). The largest mosque in Africa - it accommodated 22 000 worshippers - the Karaouine soon also became the chief centre of Muslim scholasticism in Africa, and one of the leading ones in Islam in general. [...] it [(the mosque)] impresses by size and dignity, and in its two arched pavilions it possesses specimens of Moorish architecture whose grace and beauty are unsurpassed by anything in the Alhambra at Granada. Though the library of the Karaouine is today but a pale shadow of what is must have been at the time when the Merinid Sultan Abu Inan stocked it with thousands of manuscripts that formed part of the booty won from the Christian King of Seville, some of its possessions still give the visitor a genuine thrill: for example, a volume of Ibn Khaldun's History in which the author had annotated in his own hand that this was a genuine copy, a working copy of Ibn Rushd and an Ms. written entirely by Ibn Khatimah, not to speak of some magnificent copies of Al-Bukhari's Hadith. [...] The golden era of the Karouine was in the [12th-15th] centuries, that is, under the Almohades and throughout the reign of the Merinids, those eager patrons of learning and builders of some of the city's most exquisite architectural monuments. In those days the university attracted students not only from Africa and the Muslim world beyond, but even from Europe." 1 the university is called Al-Karaouine in French, the author shortened it to Karaouine. The Karaouine at Fez, Fauzi M. Najjar, April 1958 doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1478-1913.1958.tb02246.x source: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1478-1913.1958.tb02246.x source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:29610-Fez_(28134041211)_(qarawiyyin_crop).jpg Furthermore, the mosque is only one part of entire building complex. Floor plan of the mosque and some of its annexes. (Based on an early 20th-century survey; since then the southern part of the complex, the library, has been modified.) source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Qarawiyyin_floor_plan.png
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