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[Design] Mesoamericans tech tree.


Lion.Kanzen
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Origin.

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North , Central and South America were relatively lonely places for our species 13,000 years ago. The continents were the last major landmasses in the world to be populated by Homo sapiens. 

The pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the American continents, spanning the time of the original settlement in the Upper Paleolithic to European colonization during the Early Modern period. The term Pre-Columbian is used especially often in the context of the great indigenous civilizations of the Americas, such as those of Mesoamerica (the Olmec, the Toltec, the Teotihuacano, the Zapotec, the Mixtec, the Aztec, and the Maya) and the Andes (Inca, Moche, Muisca, Cañaris).

Mesoamerica is a historical region and cultural area in southern North America and most of Central America. It extends from approximately central Mexico through Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and northern Costa Rica. Within this region pre-Columbian societies flourished for more than 3,000 years before the Spanish colonization of the Americas. Mesoamerica was the site of two of the most profound historical transformations in world history: primary urban generation, and the formation of New World cultures out of the long encounters among indigenous, European, African and Asian cultures.

 

As a cultural area, Mesoamerica is defined by a mosaic of cultural traits developed and shared by its indigenous cultures. Beginning as early as 7000 BC, the domestication of cacao, maize, beans, tomato, avocado, vanilla, squash and chili, as well as the turkey and dog, resulted in a transition from paleo-Indian hunter-gatherer tribal groupings to the organization of sedentary agricultural villages. In the subsequent Formative period, agriculture and cultural traits such as a complex mythological and religious tradition, a vigesimal numeric system, a complex calendric system, a tradition of ball playing, and a distinct architectural style, were diffused through the area. Also in this period, villages began to become socially stratified and develop into chiefdoms. Large ceremonial centers were built, interconnected by a network of trade routes for the exchange of luxury goods, such as obsidian, jade, cacao, cinnabar, Spondylus shells, hematite, and ceramics. While Mesoamerican civilization knew of the wheel and basic metallurgy, neither of these became technologically relevant.

 

 

All iron technologies must be replaced.

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Mesoamerica lacked animals suitable for domestication, most notably domesticated large ungulates. The lack of draft animals for transportation is one notable difference between Mesoamerica and the cultures of the South American Andes. Other animals, including the duck, dogs, and turkey, were domesticated. Turkey was the first to be domesticated locally, around 3500 BCE.[24] Dogs were the primary source of animal protein in ancient Mesoamerica,[25] and dog bones are common in midden deposits throughout the region.

in trading on the market.

They also hunted for luxury items, such as feline fur and bird plumage.

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Ceremonial centers were the nuclei of Mesoamerican settlements. The temples provided spatial orientation, which was imparted to the surrounding town. The cities with their commercial and religious centers were always political entities, somewhat similar to the European city-state, and each person could identify with the city where they lived.

 

All the ceremonial edifices were built in various phases, one on top of the other, to the point that what we now see is usually the last stage of construction. Ultimately, the ceremonial centers were the architectural translation of the identity of each city, as represented by the veneration of their gods and masters.[citation needed] Stelae were common public monuments throughout Mesoamerica, and served to commemorate notable successes, events and dates associated with the rulers and nobility of the various sites.

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The names given to the days, months, and years in the Mesoamerican calendar came, for the most part, from animals, flowers, heavenly bodies, and cultural concepts that held symbolic significance in Mesoamerican culture. This calendar was used throughout the history of Mesoamerican by nearly every culture. Even today, several Maya groups in Guatemala, including the K'iche', Q'eqchi', Kaqchikel, and the Mixe people of Oaxaca continue using modernized forms of the Mesoamerican calendar.

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The Mesoamerican book was typically written with brush and colored inks on a paper prepared from the inner bark of the ficus amacus. The book consisted of a long strip of the prepared bark, which was folded like a screenfold to define individual pages. The pages were often covered and protected by elaborately carved book boards. Some books were composed of square pages while others were composed of rectangular pages.

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The Mesoamerican book was typically written with brush and colored inks on a paper prepared from the inner bark of the ficus amacus. The book consisted of a long strip of the prepared bark, which was folded like a screenfold to define individual pages. The pages were often covered and protected by elaborately carved book boards. Some books were composed of square pages while others were composed of rectangular pages.

 

 

Sacrifice

 

Generally, sacrifice can be divided into two types: autosacrifice and human sacrifice.[44] The different forms of sacrifice are reflected in the imagery used to evoke ideological structure and sociocultural organization in Mesoamerica. In the Maya area, for example, stele depict bloodletting rituals performed by ruling elites, eagles and jaguars devouring human hearts, jade circles or necklaces that represented hearts, and plants and flowers that symbolized both nature and the blood that provided life.[45] Imagery also showed pleas for rain or pleas for blood, with the same intention to replenish the divine energy. Ritual sacrifice was done in efforts to appease the gods, and was done with the purpose of protection of the population.

 

Autosacrifice, also called bloodletting, is the ritualized practice of drawing blood from oneself. It is commonly seen or represented through iconography as performed by ruling elites in highly ritualized ceremonies, but it was easily practiced in mundane sociocultural contexts (i.e., non-elites could perform autosacrifice). The act was typically performed with obsidian prismatic blades or stingray spines, and blood was drawn from piercing or cutting the tongue, earlobes, and/or genitals (among other locations). Another form of autosacrifice was conducted by pulling a rope with attached thorns through the tongue or earlobes. The blood produced was then collected on amate held in a bowl.

 

Autosacrifice was not limited to male rulers, as their female counterparts often performed these ritualized activities. They are typically shown performing the rope and thorns technique. A recently discovered queen's tomb in the Classic Maya site of Waka (also known as El Perú) had a ceremonial stingray spine placed in her genital area, suggesting that women also performed bloodletting in their genitalia.

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Warfare and capturing prisoners became a method of social advancement and a religious cause. Finally, it justifies the control of power by the two ruling classes, the priests and the warriors. The priests controlled the religious ideology, and the warriors supplied the sacrifices. Historically it was also in discussion that those sacrificed were chosen by the gods, this idea of being "chosen" was decided by the gods. This was then displayed by acts, such as being struck by lightning. If someone was struck by lightning and a sacrifice was needed they would often be chosen by their population, as they believed they were chosen by the gods.

 

Astronomy

 

Mesoamerican astronomy included a broad understanding of the cycles of planets and other celestial bodies. Special importance was given to the sun, moon, and Venus as the morning and evening star.[51]

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2057297070_MayanUnderworldGod-ClubJaguar-VittorioCarvelli-Tagged.thumb.jpg.b52cfc3743f596d8c802cdd6919bc721.jpg

The nahual

The concept of nahual or nagual is diverse since it does not coincide exactly in all Mesoamerican cultures. We will try to collect the features that are common to most. The nahual is the person who has the ability, whether physical or spiritual, to take the form of an animal . Usually it is a shaman or sorcerer and uses his power in a beneficial or negative according to his personality.

 

He nahualism would be the transforming capacity of the nahual and it is a skill that lies in the spiritual essence of those people. Currently the term nahual is also used as a synonym for witch or magician, but always when it is believed that that person has the ability to become an animal. The transformation usually occurs at night and the chosen animals are preferably dogs, owls, bats and wolves. In the Mesoamerican tradition the nahual used to become a jaguar, puma or wolf.

 

In general, the communities that believe in nahualism fear the nahuales. If their character is malefic, they attribute actions such as causing disease, stealing and even drinking the blood of their victims. If they are beneficial, although feared they are tolerated and respected because they protect natural resources, the culture of the community to which they belong and defend the people.

 

Legend has it that a group of hunters walked through a dense and dark forest when night fell without having found their way back to the village. Suddenly, in front of them appeared a huge dog that looked at them and barked at them with great aggression. The dog moved and fearing that it would launch on them, one of the hunters shot him hitting him in the leg. The dog fled and disappeared into the thicket. They continued on their way and ran into a cabin. They opened the door and found in it a man who looked like a peasant, but lived surrounded by great riches. They asked him the way back, but not before noticing that he had a wound in his leg. Back in the village, they commented what they had seen in the cabin and the villagers explained that he was not a peasant, a nahual that became a dog to attack the careless travelers and steal their belongings.

 

The term nahual sometimes it also applies to an animal or protective spirit. There are some traditions that affirm that each one of us at the moment of birth he has an animal assigned which is the one that will guide and protect you throughout life. It can appear in dreams or manifest itself as a protector through an animal with which one has an affinity. The belief is that sorcerers and shamans can establish a real and special connection with their nahual and use their skills.

https://www.lifepersona.com/the-nahual-the-sorcerer-who-could-become-an-animal

 

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