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  1. I wanted to download some of his mod packs for AOM, AOEIII and his site is gone. Does anyone know where to get the mods and or where to find him? Wildfiregames-Markstrawson
  2. I want to know because this is the first time i heard of them speaking Hebrew. And yes, Carthage was a Greek colony at some point, there are numerous artifacts and histories saying so. But what i am interested in is how you derived that they spoke Hebrew.
  3. Jeru how do you know what the Punic language was?
  4. Where you have the surrounding water try placing a forest instead. Also reduce the central lake so that there is more room for open field combat.
  5. Γυνα is not modern, Γυναικα is modern. The reason i mentioned Γυνα is because it formed the root word for many other words pertaining to Women. Where as Γυνη would lose the last ee η sound and be replaced with an A at the end when combing two word roots. γυνη (γυνά, -αικός, -αῖκα; -αικῶν, -αιξί, -αῖκας) But the term γυνη has been used numerous times in ancient texts as opposed to γυνα so γυνη is fine. Also the word Θηλύς was used for the word Female if that is what you were looking for. Gine had the connotation of wife but was also applied as female. the ee or i sounds are as follows: η = long i sounds as in tree - female singular οι = long i sound as in tree - plural ει = long i sound as in tree - usualy used in verbs ι = short i sount as in sit (can be dichronus) υ = dichronus in that it makes two i sounds si-it
  6. You could do it based on Indo European Ideas: Although the picture above makes it seem like there is only one Greek language but in reality all it's other branches like those that were found in SOuthern Italy and Spain have simply not made it into the modern era. North Armenia had Pontic Greeks and Georgia also had Georgian Greeks but they spoke different languages . They were Greek derived but were usually considered Greek dialects. But the distinction is rather hard to make because all the Eastern Greeks used more Ancient Greek words than did Modern Greek, by this i mean where an ancient word was replaced with a modern version in Greece, the Eastern Greeks did not change such word. eg. Phrases like Pou-then eisai in the east became apo pou eisai in Greece (Where are you from?).
  7. The word is gina as in va gina. for woman. Γυνα. but Γυνή was used more i guess. Gine
  8. I would go with oikos for the house. domos usually means living quarters. Gina is the word for woman.
  9. It varies with which place we are talking about. But in the case of Italy the southern part was heavily colonised so it was not merely influencing the locals but actually forming cities where the inhabitants were mainly Greek. Of course over time the locals would have gone to live in the cities and outnumbered the Greeks. The city state was a new idea that the Greeks had introduced and as such Italy's roots lay in a Greek colonising effort. This does not mean that there were no Italian people, it just means that the concentrated population you find in cities were only found in the Greek cities of Italy. But later Latins and other tribes tried to take southern italy and eventually they succeeded. No longer were the Greeks the majority in their own cities. As for Egypt the Greek city was Alexandria where the majority of people were Greeks at the start. Hispania also was a Greek city. But as for Carthage well maybe there are two stories and you just need to choose which is right. So what i was saying is that although the local people existed in many of these places, their first cities (in the West) were Greek cities. (not all but most) And then eventually the locals took control of these cities and they changed them. Hispania for example was eventually run by Celts then Romans. http://books.google.com.au/books?id=uA4DAA...lony%22&f=false Search the text where it says: "Rome was a Greek Colony"
  10. There are only 4 books surviving regarding the Germanic people prior to 500AD. So it becomes hard to understand them completely. But from Greek accounts the Celts were generally allies to the Greeks during and after Alexander's time. That they attacked Rome may have been a peace keeping mission because they only raided Rome in 340BC. But later they tried to attack Rome on several accounts with intent to take some of the nearby cities. Note Also that the Germanic people had a large network of villages but stopped short of building cities until much later in their history. Possible reasons may have been that they lived by a Feudalistic type of government headed by a chief. This limited them from establishing large delegated labour networks to complete state works. But from 400AD onwards all this changes dramatically and the Germanic people end up taking all of Europe. The Americans as you put them were a branch of the Germanic people. English itself is a Germanic language. So don't think that Germany is the only place to find Germanic people. The Slavs, Celts, Gauls, Rus (Russians), Norse, Anglo-Saxxons etc are all part of a Germanic family. The Germanic people took a while to join the fight but they have literally taken over the world in our modern age. Rome and Greece fell! But getting back your point, I am not taking anything away from the history of other people. But the impact of having a Greek speaking empire that stretched from Europe to India had such a massive impact on the world. Also the deliberate attempts to colonise Western Europe by the Greeks and later Romans was the start of what you see today. Some historians say that the Roman's built the roads that made it possible for the Greek NT to travel all over the world. Imagine now what would have become of Europe and Russia if they didn't have a common faith that prevented them from slaughtering each other.
  11. All those places you mention had some form of colony or were known to the Greeks intimately. Have you ever heard of the pact between the Celts and Alexander? The Danube river which stretches from the Bosphorus to Germany was dotted with villages that traded with the Greeks and borrowed from them many ideas, in part Hellenising themselves. It is not by chance that the Greek Gods can be interpreted into Roman Gods and NOrse Gods. (We saw this happen again when the Ostrogoths became hellenised in that same very region) There are ancient drawings showing the Celts fighting against the Greeks. So the Greeks had already impacted on the West. Hispania was at one stage a Greek colony, the name itself is Greek. Also Carthage according to Greek historians WAS a Greek colony. But as the years rolled by, well things changed: The Seleucids once asked Sidon or Biblos (Can't remember exactly) to attack Carthage and they said we have a pact to not attack our own. Meaning that by 320BC the city had become different to when it was a Greek colony but nevertheless it remained part of Ptolemy's rule through Egypt. Any attributed success of Carthage was dependant on it's support from Egypt. Cleopatra was the last to reign in the lineage of Ptolemy(former general of Alexander). This link shows you that the Greek coins were the most used in the city of Carthage as of 320BC http://www.jstor.org/pss/504208 Look for the part that says SNG coins were the most used: this is an abbreviation for Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, or simply Greek coins. Here are some database searches for some SNG's Ref. XIII Newcastle Antiquaries Soc. State: Spain Mint: Malaka Period: -199 to -100 Obv: Head of Vulcan bearded r Rev: Bust of Helios radiate Material: AE Weight: 12 Axis: 2 Width: 20 SNGuk_1301_0002 Ref. XIII Newcastle Antiquaries Soc. State: Campania Ruler: Augustus Mint: Neapolis Period: -395 to -385 Obv: Head of nymph r. in sphendone Rev: Man-headed bull l., head frontal, being crowned by Nike; below double exergue line, ??????????? Material: AR Weight: 8 Axis: 1 Width: 20 SNGuk_1301_0024 Ref. XIII Newcastle Antiquaries Soc. State: Calabria Ruler: Augustus Mint: Tarentum Period: -212 to -209 Obv: Rider l. crowning his horse on ground line; behind, ??; below, ??????? Rev: Dolphin-rider carrying Nike in r. and cornucopia in l.; below, ????? Material: AR Weight: 4 Axis: 11 Width: 18 SNGuk_1301_0038 Note all these Greek coins constitute the majority and are not rare occurrences. This timeline is reasonably ok. Look at 320BC and note Ptolemy uses Egypt to take Lybia and Carthage as a province. Carthages missions were driven by a central Greek leader in Egypt/Memphis. http://www.bible-history.com/jesus/jesusTime_Charts.htm Anyway, Rome was pretty much Greek or very Greekish in terms of population there are too many evidences for and only a few that contradict that.
  12. Up until the fascists forced the revised Italian language on the Southern Italians most spoke a dialect similar to Greek it was called Grec. Dante who wrote the Komodia was writing in a dialect very similar to Grec. These were the last signs of an old heritage that linked Southern Italy to both Magna Gracia and later Hellenisation periods. I am not saying that Imperial Rome was Greek. The Latin tribes took over administration and Julius and Nero both worked towards increasing the power of the Latin people within Italy. But Latin was by no means a common language. It became at best a second administrative language and later became used by the Church in the West. Like I said the councils of Rome used Greek between 1AD-700AD as the common language between councillors. There is a distinction between Imperial Rome and the Roman Empire. If today Japan took over Australia, Britain, Canada and the USA then Japanese would be an administrative language. But the common language would be English. In the same way when Rome started to expand under Latin rule all it did was take over Greek or former Greek territories and colonies. That is pure fact! The Romans documented how they forced the Greeks out of the cities, slaughtered them and recolonised the said cities with Latin colonists. This happened mainly in Western Europe where the Greeks were reasonably few in numbers. The end result of the Roman Empire was that it had far more Greek speakers than any other language. At around 285 AD the tables turned Diocles also Known as Diocletian Defeated the last Imperial ROman armies and started to re Hellenise the former Greek territories including Southern Italy. Diocles along with many other generals in the Roman Army after Nero had to speak Greek because it was the common language. Diocles was born a Greek. When Christ was crucified on his Cross there was a wooden plaque (epitaph) that read: The reason for Greek is that it was the Common language of the Mediterranean, Latin because at the time Latin rulers governed central Rome and Hebrew for the locals.
  13. How can i condense an entire lifetime into two paragraphs on a forum? Which part do you think is ridiculous? Neapolis was a suburb of what became Rome but it was it's oldest suburb. As for Titus and Livy, their history of Rome is just propaganda mainly. Plutarch gives a much more reliable account. And for one when you read the English translations of Plutarch they are not the same in any way. Infact most translations of Plutarch are hybrids between what others have said and what Plutarch is saying. As for Byzantine history the best modern book on the subject is by Warren Treadgold: Byzantine State and Society.
  14. Why LOL? I suggest you read Warren Treadgolds Byzantine Society. It will give you enough information about the BYzantine society and culture.
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