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Showing results for tags 'Han Dynasty'.
Dig up from Han Dynasty ancient text. Generic Term fù nǚ （妇女） Woman shāng rén （商人） Trader rú shēng （儒生） Confucian Scholar dào shi （道士） Taoist (I will exclude Buddhists atm because they spread to China during Eastern Han) bù zú （步卒） Infantry qīng qí （轻骑） Light Cavalry tū qí （突骑） Shock Cavalry jiàn shì （剑士）Swordsman. The term shì '士' might implies these are not your run-of-the-mill everyday sword infantry though. jiá shì (甲士) generic term for 'armored infantryman' jiá qí (甲骑) generic term for 'armored cavalryman' Border Army tún tián bīng （屯田兵）frontier guard - settler. Think Late Roman Limitanei. shù zú （戍卒）generic term for 'border guard' tíng zú （亭卒）generic term for 'watchtower sentry' biān qí (边骑) generic term for 'border cavalry' Provincial Army jùn guó bīng （郡国兵）Provincial Army under a system of mandatory service. cái guān （材官）Provincial army infantry or infantry officer. The meaning isn't very clear. qí shì （骑士）Provincial army cavalry or cavalry officer. Meaning isn't clear either. qīng chē （轻车）Provincial army chariot/charioteer. lóu chuán shì （楼船士）Provincial army navy/naval officer. jī shè shì （积/迹射士）Infantry archer/ranger The combined strength of the Border and Provincial Army are 250000 (high estimates), during the Reign of Wu Di this can be as high as 800000 (also high estimates). Imperial Northern Army / Standing Army běi jūn （北军）Northen Army guarding the Capital city of Chang'an, also Han Dynasty's standing army. Divided into seven or eight divisions. They numbered around 5000 ~ 30000. qí shì （骑士）also found among the ranks of the Northern Army. They are under the leadership of tún qí xiào wèi（屯骑校尉）. shàng lín yuàn mén tún bīng （上林苑门屯兵）infantry garrison of the royal forest gate. Under the leadership of bù bīng xiào wèi（步兵校尉）. hú jì（胡骑）literally "Northen Barbarian Cavalry". It is unclear whether they are subjugated Xiongnu people under Han employment, or people with mixed Chinese and Hú descent, or simply elite cavalry riding foreign horses (received as tribute). They are under the leadership of cháng shuǐ xiào wèi （长水校尉） and hú jì xiào wèi （胡骑校尉）, depending on the area of garrison. yuè qí （越骑）literally "Southern Barbarian Cavalry". Also disputed, because the Yuè barbarians from Southern China had the reputation of being terrible horsemen. Some Jin Dynasty historians suggested that it could means something like "Strong Cavalry". They are under the leadership of yuè qí xiào wèi （越骑校尉） shè shēng shì （射声士）Elite archer. Unclear whether bow or crossbow, or mounted or on foot. They are under the leadership of shè shēng xiào wèi（射声校尉） qīng chē （轻车）Chariots. They are under the leadership of hǔ bēn xiào wèi（虎贲校尉）. This is an 'in name only' unit, as chariots were phased out. All divisions are under the command of a commander, called zhōng lěi xiào wèi （中垒校尉） Imperial Southern Army / Palace Guard nán jūn （南军）Southern Army guarding the palace. The most elite but least numerous of the bunch, only numbered around 2000. qī mén （期门） The Qi Men Guard. Later renamed to hǔ bēn （虎贲） yǔ lín （羽林）The Yu Lin Guard, or Feather Forest Guard. yǔ lín gū ér （羽林孤儿） Orphans of deceased military officers that were absorbed/recruited into the Yu Lin Guard. *It seems that both divisions of the Imperial Palace Guard were renowned horse archers. It is logical to assume that they were trained in other weapons though. Volunteer Army yǒng gǎn shì （勇敢士） meaning 'brave man'. cì fēi （佽飞）named after one famous swordsman during Spring and Autumn period. Details unknown. bēn mìng （奔命） kàng jiàn （伉健）Meaning "Strong (Physically fit) man". The text implies these are horse archers. **Although many different fancy names, these are basically volunteer (likely paid) army raised for a large campaign or during emergency. Most likely drawn from ex-Provincial army personnel currently not on active service. Penal Military Unit chí xíng （弛刑）- criminals. qī kē zhé （七科谪）- criminals of the seven (type of) laws. These are generally petty crimes like "being a merchant". è shào nián （恶少年）- literally "Bad Youngster" yìng mù zuì rén （应募罪人） - Criminal 'Volunteer' . More often they are pressed into service. ***Also many fancy names, but in essence no much difference. These are not specific term, but generic ones. Auxiliary qiāng qí （羌骑）- Auxiliary cavalry of the subjugated qiāng tribes. Unlike the confusing hú and yuè cavalry, these are auxiliary instead of standing army. ****There are other auxiliary unit(s), so this list is incomplete. Misc. juě zhāng shì （厥张士）- Han Dynasty term for 'Crossbowman' but implying elite ones. No other context are given though. These are administrative divisions. During wartimes the army will be organized based on numbers, and honorable titles will be given to whoever in charge.
Reconstructed by 琥璟明 (Not the guy in photo), one of the better reconstructor (is that even a word?) in China. Early Western Han, unarmoured Infantry. Note that only the first three pics are in complete costume. Subsequent pictures are to showcase the undercloth. Early Western Han, light armoured Infantry.