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Mesoamerican Fauna and Flora

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Manta birostris

Ficus : more common species in mayan world   http://www.maya-archaeology.org/FLAAR_Reports_on_Mayan_archaeology_Iconography_publications_books_articles/57_Economic-potential-for-Amate-Ficus-

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1 hour ago, Trinketos said:

Nadie toma en cuenta al lince y su mod :(
deberian incluir al axolotl como cardumen de peses, o algo haci


Estoy buscando lo general ya voy tomar, el resto como los aguacates, el tomate, deberías ayudarme con la región del norte y el pacifico.

Yo con lo que conozco.

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If that is for terra magna or a CoM mod one could create issues on the repository and post the relevant references there :) This way if we want to tackle a list of tasks for a future release its easier it also means the poor sool who has to make it doesn't have to go through hundred of forums posts.

Example :

you want an aloe plant with let's say 4 variations.

you create a ticket say the number of variations and add the pictures there. Someone picks up the task and once it's done it's closed :)

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  • 8 months later...


Ficus : more common species in mayan world





There are 22 species of Ficus for Mexico (Ibarra et al.:2012:392) and at least 36 or more Ficus species included in Parker’s book on Trees of Guatemala (2008.556-564). Dozens more exist in the rest of Mesoamerica. I list only a sample here. In bold font I emphasize which species can be used to make bark paper. There are many non-Ficus trees which can also produce a bark-paper. So the ethnobotany gets complicated very quickly. But at least now we have initiated this research project and want to show our first photographs and our initial tabulations. I provide a separate tabulation to list all trees of other kinds of trees which can also make paper. The best discussion of which trees can be used to make paper in Mexico is in the PhD dissertation of Lopez. Here we list only Ficus species; Although Lopez is often an original source, the tabulation of Robles is the easiest to follow (2011: 216). There are also lists in the PhD dissertation of Maya (2011)

there is a list of speciment of Ficus tree (oaxaca in the map.) and the rrst of Mayan World.


Since we are in the middle of projects studying flavorings for cacao, Aztec and Maya ingredients for tobacco (more than just tobacco), colorants from local plants to dye native cotton clothing, and also trying to locate all the hundreds of medicinal plants of Guatemala, it would require funding to track down and study every species of Ficus. But since we are interested in all utilitarian plants of Mesoamerica, we wanted at least to prepare an introductory tabulation and a brief bibliography to assist people to understand that • strangler figs strangle other trees; these are very common in Guatemala • But there are many fig trees which are not stranglers • Figs for candy and cookies come from fig trees of other parts of the world • Not all bark paper comes just from amate (Ficus) trees


ficus goldmanii is in many places of mesoamerica.




Figs are keystone species in many tropical forest ecosystems. Their fruit are a key resource for some frugivores including fruit bats, and primates including: capuchin monkeys, langurs, gibbons and mangabeys. They are even more important for birds such as Asian barbets, pigeons, hornbills, fig-parrots and bulbuls, which may almost entirely subsist on figs when these are in plenty. Many Lepidoptera caterpillars feed on fig leaves, for example several Euploea species (crow butterflies), the plain tiger (Danaus chrysippus), the giant swallowtail (Papilio cresphontes), the brown awl(Badamia exclamationis), and Chrysodeixis eriosoma, Choreutidae and Copromorphidae moths. The citrus long-horned beetle (Anoplophora chinensis), for example, has larvae that feed on wood, including that of fig trees; it can become a pest in fig plantations. Similarly, the sweet potato whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) is frequently found as a pest on figs grown as potted plants and is spread through the export of these plants to other localities. For a list of other diseases common to fig trees, see List of foliage plant diseases (Moraceae).

The wood of fig trees is often soft and the latex precludes its use for many purposes. It was used to make mummy caskets in Ancient Egypt. Certain fig species (mainly F. cotinifolia, F. insipida and F. padifolia) are traditionally used in Mesoamerica to produce papel amate (Nahuatl: āmatl). Mutuba (F. natalensis) is used to produce barkcloth in Uganda. Pou (F. religiosa) leaves' shape inspired one of the standard kbach rachana, decorative elements in Cambodian architecture. Indian banyan (F. bengalensis) and the Indian rubber plant, as well as other species, have use in herbalism.

i give the list of mayan Ficus.




know as Amate. is very important to our planned civs and produces paper.


Ficus Padifolia.


Ficus petiolaris or Amate Amarillo(yellowish). 




Ficus pringlei S. Watson

Ficus Naxima mill. this is similar that I found.



Ficus Citrofolia


Brosimum Alicastrum (most common in copan ruins)


Ficus Segoviae same as insipida.




The wood is soft, but it is used for construction purposes where durability is not important.

Ficus insipida is used by wajacas (shamans) of the Craós (Krahós, Krahô) tribe in Brazil as a memory enhancer.[5] Its latex is also employed in South American folk medicine as the anthelmintic called ojé, but as it is toxic it must be used with care.[6]

Maya codices (singular codex) are folding books stemming from the pre-Columbian Maya civilization, written in Maya hieroglyphic script on Mesoamerican bark cloth, Amatl, made from the inner bark of certain trees, the main being the wild fig tree or Amate (Ficus glabrata; a synonym of the Ficus insipida).



Ficus Aurea

Ficus Castilla Elastica








image.thumb.png.72fefe9c435b61fd12263f1f0e6b38b3.pngMCWh6Hj.jpgResultado de imagen para map mesoamerican forestvrGWf8B.png


The Archaeological Park of Copan studied the flora that inhabit in this protected area. There were 94 plant species, being 76% eudicotiledóneas, 16% monocotyledons and 10% basal angiosperms. The Fabaceae family (10) has the highest number of species. In the nine linear transects of 0.1 km, a total of 57 species of arboreal and shrub plants were identified and 605 individuals were counted, being the most abundant Brosimum alicastrum. Cedrela odorata L. and Swietenia macrophylla species categorized as vulnerable according to the IUCN red list and listed in Appendix III of CITES. Most of the species registered on the site present a potential use, as medicinal, industrial and forestry. Key words: Archaeological sites, plant species, Fabaceae, Brosimum a

for example from all the species of flora in Copán the top list are the following.


you can see some of them inn Jurassic Park movie.


Edited by Lion.Kanzen
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Berry bushes.





Rubus adenotrichos is a Mesoamerican species of brambles in the rose family. It grows in Central America, northwestern South America, and central and southern Mexico, from Michoacán and Veracruz south to Ecuador and Venezuela.


Resultado de imagen para Rubus adenotrichus


is a highland fruit.




Edited by Lion.Kanzen
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  • 1 year later...

there is a serie called Hernan with good landscapes.


Hernán is a Spanish, Nahuatl, and Maya language historical drama web television series co-produced by Televisión Azteca, Dopamine, and Onza Entertainment that became available for streaming worldwide on Prime Video on 21 November 2019,[1] except in the United States,[1] and it will subsequently premiere on 22 November 2019 on History in Latin America


look like a kind of pine...


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Principales tipos de vegetación (biomas) en el estado de Oaxaca, de acuerdo con el mapa de vegetación potencial de Rzedowski (Rzedowski, 1990). BES= Bosque estacionalmente seco, BHM= Bosque húmedo (mesófilo) de montaña, BTEM= Bosque templado, BTHU= bosque tropical húmedo, MXE= Matorral xerófilo.  

Main vegetation types (biomes) in the state of Oaxaca, according to Rzedowski's potential vegetation map (Rzedowski, 1990). BES= Seasonally dry forest, BHM= Montane moist (mesophilic) forest, BTEM= Temperate forest, BTHU= Tropical moist forest, MXE= Xerophytic scrub.  


Oaxaca have mostly Dry and temperate forest.

Dry Forest



Temperate forest (I'm very familiar with this.)




Edited by Lion.Kanzen
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some videos to make a little more interesting and less boring information.


The video is in Spanish you only need to watch it, it does not require understanding Spanish.


With this we will be able to make the maps and biomes of the game.(At least parts of the biodiversity of Mesoamerican Mexico)


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  • 3 weeks later...

when i went south on my recent vacation we climbed the side of a cliff plateau.


It is a pity that I had not been able to record it on video but I found some videos that are very similar to the experience that I lived, a pity that they did not record some things that I saw that I only took in photos.


The area where the Zapotecs lived all around is very similar to the area that goes from the center of my country to the south


It looks a lot like Mexico, Especially if we refer to the Pacific area,  In the day it is hot and dry but ... the same time at night  it's very cold.

Is a shame that in 4 days I had not been able to take photos only the cut stone not the natural stones.




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Another plant that I saw and is in Oaxaca, is the maguel / maguey.

so we have this plant in common, put is more common in mexico.IMG_20210401_173115318.thumb.jpg.9e7cf00b6489cbca9188259450ed9fbc.jpg

the last image is courtesy of me you can use it.

It should be noted that it is different because it is covered with dead pine leaves.



It serves as for many things, such as

"As we have already noticed its bruised leaves afforded a paste from which paper was manufactured, its juice was fermented into an intoxicating beverage, pulque, of which the natives, to this day, are extremely fond"

The one I saw had to measure over one meter.

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