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10 minutes ago, Genava55 said:

It is not mandatory. If you want to put me in the credits, a very small thing is enough. You are doing, you and others artists, the most important job. I'm actually just giving you work to do :laugh:

By the way, do you have any remark about the document? Is it practical for you? I want to be the most helpful I can.


We can't without properly reference. thank you. 

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On 8/31/2018 at 9:06 PM, Genava55 said:

I did a design document with some pictures (not all I put in the previous document) for the Gauls. I did some modifications about the names of the units, I abandoned my idea of regional names (too restrictive) but I keep my idea of two reform: Gallic sovereignty reform and Belgian uprising reform. The unit description is at the end. Do you have any suggestion/remark/error?



@wackyserious @Alexandermb maybe it could be useful for you too. It was a first proposal I did.

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A good podcast released by Kings and Generals channel. The quality in term of accuracy is above the videos, although it doesn't really discuss the military aspect.

For a few corrections, between 8:00 and 9:00. the speaker should have more emphasized the role of the Etruscans in the contact between Northern regions and Mediterranean civilizations.




At 11:40, the speaker pronounced "La Tène" as Latèné pronouncing the last e as an English speaking person will pronounce the letter e when he recite the alphabet. Actually, in French we pronounced the letter e more like an English person says uh/euh, and at the end of a word this sound is very little pronounced. Here an example of pronunciation at 1:45. This is a small and not important error but I took the opportunity to correct this common issue.

Between 16:30 and 17:00, the speaker highlights the issue of the origins of the Celtic culture (especially Celtic language). It is true that the Hallstatt narrative as a sole explanation for the Celtic expansion is dull and mostly abandoned by modern scholars. But he mentioned the idea of a western origin as a valid theory. However, the hypothesis pushed by Cunliffe and Koch that the Celtic languages comes from the West is mostly based on the idea that indo-european languages doesn't come from Steppic expansion (Kurgan hypothesis) but from Eastern neolithic (for Cunliffe's stand) or that Celtic languages do not come from the same indo-european migration (steppic) but from a later Anatolian migration of culture already bearing an indo-european culture (for Koch's stand). Honestly, this is only misplaced nationalism among two old scholars and there is really nobody following their view. They only got mediatized outside the academic world, this is why people thinks this is a valid theory among scholars. This is not the case. Archaeogenetics shattered their hypothesis about indo-europeans.

At 26:16, the speaker says the Celts didn't build roads. This is not true, the first Roman roads got built upon previous roads:






Finally at 26:55, the speaker says the Romans had the advantage of a industrial production of weapons for their soldiers. While the Gauls not. This is true however the latter claim that the chain mail is only for the ruling elite is a bit disputed by late La Tène findings. Especially one I worked on it as a technician. It was a deposit of artisanal waste with a large chain mails piece, mixed with broken objects, unfinished products and productions failures. It doesn't suit the idea of a high valuable object. The chain mail is probably not widespread in the whole warrior class but assuming it is only for high-members of the La Tène society is maybe too extreme. At the end of the La Tène culture, iron production is starting to be very important and close to what is seen in the Mediterranean world. Rome's productivity is exceptional in comparison of Greek cities and I think it is a bad idea to compare everything with Rome.

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Artificial islands older than Stonehenge stump scientists+

A study of crannogs in Scotland's Outer Hebrides reveals some were built more than 3,000 years earlier than previously thought. But what purpose did they serve?

When it comes to studying Neolithic Britain (4,000-2,500 B.C.), a bit of archaeological mystery is to be expected. Since Neolithic farmers existed long before written language made its way to the British Isles, the only records of their lives are the things they left behind. And while they did leave us a lot of monuments that took, well, monumental effort to build—think Stonehenge or the stone circles of Orkney—the cultural practices and deeper intentions behind these sites are largely unknown.

Now it looks like there may potentially be a whole new type of Neolithic monument for archaeologists to scratch their heads over: crannogs.

Artificial islands commonly known as crannogs dot hundreds of Scottish and Irish lakes and waterways. Until now, researchers thought most were built when people in the Iron Age (800-43 B.C.) created stone causeways and dwellings in the middle of bodies of water. But a new paper published today in the journal Antiquity suggests that at least some of Scotland’s nearly 600 crannogs are much, much older—nearly three thousand years older—putting them firmly in the Neolithic era. What’s more, the artifacts that help push back the date of the crannogs into the far deeper past may also point to a kind of behavior not previously suspected in this prehistoric period.



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Grave of 'real-life Asterix' who fought Caesar found amid trove of weapons and possessions in West Sussex 

The grave of a real-life Asterix containing what is believed to be an ancient Gallic warrior who came to Britain and fought Julius Caesar has been discovered, archaeologists have announced.

The unique and highly-elaborate resting place was found on a West Sussex building site.

The Iron Age warrior, buried with his glamorous and ornate head-dress, is thought to have been a refugee French Gallic fighter who fled Julius Caesar's legionnaires as they swept across continental Europe in about 50BC.

Archaeologists have described the discovery, which will go on display at Chichester's Novium Museum in January 2020, as "the most elaborately equipped warrior grave ever found in England".

The grave was found during excavations ahead of a Berkeley Homes housing development in North Bersted in 2008, but it has taken years of conservation and scientific analysis to prepare the artefacts for display.

Dr Melanie Giles, senior lecturer in archaeology at the University of Manchester, said: "It really is absolutely a unique find in the British Isles and in the wider continent, we don't have another burial that combines this quality of weaponry and Celtic art with a date that puts it around the time of Caesar's attempted conquest of Britain.

"We will probably never know his name, what we know from the archaeology is that he is either someone from eastern England who may have gone and fought with the Gauls that we know was a problem for Caesar, we were allies with the French, helping them with their struggle against him.

"Or he might be a Frenchman himself who flees that conflict, possibly a real-life Asterix and coming to us, just as in Asterix in Britain, to lend us aid in terms of the knowledge he has about strategy, tactics, he knows Caesar is going to try to divide and rule."

"Also he brings with him his kit, extraordinary weaponry, a beautiful sword which is not like the swords we have, a new technology, style and design and helmet which is absolutely unique with these wonderful Celtic openwork crests which exaggerate his height and make him absolutely fabulous."


Edited by Genava55
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Iron Age shield found in Pocklington is "one of most important ancient finds this millennium"



“The popular belief is that elaborate metal-faced shields were purely ceremonial, reflecting status, but not used in battle. Our investigation challenges this with the evidence of a puncture wound in the shield typical of a sword. Signs of repairs can also be seen, suggesting the shield was not only old but likely to have been well-used,” said Paula.

Edited by Genava55
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4 hours ago, Loki1950 said:

If I remember correctly the Scythian nomads had similar thing for horns so not surprising that a neighbouring culture echos it though it does kinda muddy the the origin evidence for either culture.

Enjoy the Choice :)  

Yep. Both cultures emphasize horse and horsemanship in addition. Several element of the La Tene art are inspired by nomadic animal art. Silk has been found in a Hallstatt tomb, probably from trading with the Scythians.

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