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m7600

civ: Ethiopians

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4 minutes ago, balduin said:

Can you remove the shield?

Yep, removing stuff is easier than adding them. All I have to do is delete the XML line for the shield. In this and in many other aspects, the Pyrogenesis engine is a joy to work with, it was evidently designed with modding in mind, and with the purpose of making modder's lives easier. Ok, enough of that rant, here they are without shields.

Screenshot from 2020-06-15 15-59-39.png

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This post will look at contemporary pictures of Ethiopian horses.

Man back from funerals on his horse, Highlands, Ethiopia

Man back from funerals on his horse, Highlands, Ethiopia

source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/mytripsmypics/98764686/in/photostream/

Water to Thrive - May 17 – Visiting Projects in Barrack District with ODA

04-Dick-on-horse.jpg

01-Greeting-by-Oromia-Horseman.jpg

source: https://www.watertothrive.org/may-17-visiting-projects-in-barrack-district-with-oda/

An Oromo horseman gallops along the plains in Bale

Horse-shot.png

source: https://www.gonomad.com/59094-walking-across-rooftop-africa-sanetti-plateau-ethiopia

Ethiopian Horse Rider.

ethiopian-horse-rider-23772035.jpg

source: https://www.dreamstime.com/royalty-free-stock-photo-ethiopian-horse-rider-image23772035

Man and girl riding a horse on a road in the Ethiopian highlands.

man-girl-riding-horse-road-ethiopian-hig

source: https://www.dreamstime.com/man-girl-riding-horse-road-ethiopian-highlands-ethiopia-amhara-september-image165674954

Horse Riding Adventure in Ethiopia

horse-riding-adventure-ethiopia.jpg

source: https://fanosethiopiatours.wordpress.com/2013/05/25/horse-riding-adventure-in-ethiopia/

Genna: An Ethiopian Christmas in January!

horse-riding.jpg

source: http://afrotourism.com/travelogue/genna-an-ethiopian-christmas-in-january/

Ethopians play a game called "Yeferas Guks" or "Yeferas suk".

Quote

 

On the 19th of January (as part of Timkat – the Ethiopian Orthodox Epiphany celebration) Ethiopian men, wearing head-dresses made from lions’ manes, play a unique sport called Yeferas Guks. Two opposing groups ride on horseback and throw bamboo or wooden lances at each other. Nowadays, they protect themselves with shields, but centuries ago, survival in this game heavily depended on the rider’s skill, because there was no armor for protection and the javelins used were very sharp. (source: https://equigeoblog.wordpress.com/tag/traditions/)

 

n_ethiopia.jpg

source: https://equigeoblog.wordpress.com/tag/traditions/

I hope the pictures help to better understand the wall paintings of horses. The fur hat of the Oromo appears in modern images only.

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2 minutes ago, balduin said:

I hope the pictures help to better understand the wall paintings of horses. The fur hat of the Oromo appears in modern images only.

Might be appropriate for a Oromo mercenary unit.

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21 minutes ago, Ultimate Aurelian said:

Might be appropriate for a Oromo mercenary unit.

I actually would not do that. It seems that fur hat was popular in the 19th and 20th century.

RasMakonnen.jpg

source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:RasMakonnen.jpg

However, it seems to be only a choice of style.

Ras_M%C3%A4konnen_(W%C3%A4ld%C3%A4-Mika'

source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Ras_Mäkonnen_(Wäldä-Mika'él)_(1852-1906).jpg

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1 hour ago, balduin said:

Even though, the Ethiopians fought against Arabic troops, they did not start using heavy armor.  The reason, was probably that the horses were faster without armor.

Was their cavalry lighter than Sudan's ?

From what i can gather Sudanese art depicts mailed warriors (Alongside with a mail fragment from Alodia).

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General and specific names for the roster:

Ethiopian woman - ye’ītiyop’iya sētochi

Infantry spearman - t’ori sewi

Infantry archer - k’esitenya

Infantry javelin - javīlīni

Cavalry spearman - feresenya t’ori

Cavalry swordsman - feresenya goradē

Champion spear cavalry - shamipīyoni t’ori

Champion Shotel infantry - meshenitai
 

Mercenaries:

Camel archer - gimeli k’esiti

Oromo cavalry javelineer - ye’oromo feresenyochi

Afar axeman - ye’āfari met’irebīya sewi


The only specific name I could find was "meshenitai" for the Shotel warrior, according to wikipedia: "A shotel is a curved sword originating in Eritrea and northern Ethiopia.The Ethiopian swordsmen who were trained in using this weapon were known as meshenitai, and the Eritrean swordsmen is known as hanetay or Tewagai. The curve on the meshenitai blade varies from the Persian shamshir, adopting an almost semicircular shape."
For the other names, I just used Google translate (English to Amharic).

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2 hours ago, m7600 said:

Here are some references I found for their infantry and cavalry.

 

ethio_warriors.jpg

Not sure about that image the cavalry looks like a Bagirmi or Bornu warrior.

A problem i have with names is finding singular forms.

The article bellow talks a bit about Ethiopian military organization, but does not say what they called the members of these regiment:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chewa_regiments

Edited by Ultimate Aurelian
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On 6/15/2020 at 10:03 PM, Ultimate Aurelian said:

Was their cavalry lighter than Sudan's ?

From what i can gather Sudanese art depicts mailed warriors (Alongside with a mail fragment from Alodia).

Do you have a reference for that?

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Here are more pictures of

Warriors

ethiopia-abyssinian-warriors-antique-pri

source: https://www.antiquemapsandprints.com/ethiopia-abyssinian-warriors-antique-print-1867-97231-p.asp

ras-nasibu.jpg

source: https://frontierpartisans.com/10721/mongrel-foreign-legion/

55329.jpg

source: http://www.museumsyndicate.com/item.php?item=55329

antique-illustration-abyssinian-warriors

source: https://www.shutterstock.com/image-photo/antique-illustration-abyssinian-warriors-original-creatd-76884388

abyssinian-priest-and-warrior-1848-artis

source: https://www.alamy.com/abyssinian-priest-and-warrior-1848-artist-lemoine-image60210980.html

Early_nineteenth_century_warriors_Colour

source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Early_nineteenth_century_warriors_Colour.jpg

young-ethiopian-warrior-with-her-spear-p

source: https://www.gettyimages.de/detail/nachrichtenfoto/young-ethiopian-warrior-with-her-spear-nachrichtenfoto/104420732

Weapons

DSC_0319.jpg

DSC_0887.jpg

source: https://www.blackgate.com/2014/12/10/arms-and-armor-of-the-abyssinian-empire/

Shields

Ethiopian_Shield_(2132437162).jpg

source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ethiopian_Shield_(2132437162).jpg

Tim Hamill made a couple of pictures of shields, here are two of them. For the rest click on the source link.

EthiopianShield08f.jpg

EthiopianShield08r.jpg

source: https://www.hamillgallery.com/ETHIOPIAN/EthiopianShields/EthiopianShield08.html

DSC04709_l.JPG?disable=upscale&auto=webp

Hall_of_Africa_04_l.JPG?disable=upscale&

DSC00842_l.jpg?disable=upscale&auto=webp

source: https://www.1stdibs.com/furniture/folk-art/tribal-art/antique-ethiopian-abyssinian-ceremonial-shield-gashan-19th-century/id-f_798998/

2003_NYR_01319_0458_000().jpg

source: https://www.christies.com/lotfinder/lot/two-ethiopian-circular-shields-4077086-details.aspx

selassie-shield-with-silver-gilt-mounts-

selassie-shield-with-silver-gilt-mounts-

source: https://www.ashokaarts.com/shop/beautiful-ethiopian-shield-with-wonderful-provenance-and-silver-gilt-mounts

1-603.jpg

8-120.jpg

source: https://www.africa-gallery.nl/product/1607720/180940-tribal-used-african-ethiopian-amhara-shield-ethiopia

1-527.jpg

6-206.jpg

source: https://www.africa-gallery.nl/product/1595189/190730-tribal-used-african-ethiopian-amhara-shield-ethiopia

3-748.jpg

10-65.jpg

source: https://www.africa-gallery.nl/product/1802936/200546-tribal-used-african-ethiopian-amhara-shield-ethiopia

 

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51 minutes ago, balduin said:

Do you have a reference for that?

Found on threads for a total war mod:

https://www.twcenter.net/forums/showthread.php?733595-East-African-Research-Thread&p=15030948&highlight=mail#post15030948

http://www.twcenter.net/forums/showthread.php?686248-Medieval-warriors-of-East-Africa-2D-Concept-Art-Project&p=14961417&viewfull=1#post14961417

here are the images of mail:

Spoiler

Fragment from soba:

58282c30c579dd6794b2951006721e76.jpg

Abdallah Nirqi Mural:

916907af01e811d59bb704355d6f404f.jpg

Qasr Ibim parchment depicting a armored saint:

3a8ddbb4a111a148c0870495a4916ce9.jpg

 

Edited by Ultimate Aurelian
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Carl Hagenbeck founded Tierpark Hagenbeck, a zoo in the German city of Hamburg. In the zoo had human exhibitions (human zoo) between 1900 and 1931. The city of Hamburg publishes the images in their picture archive: http://hamburg-bildarchiv.de/0330549e2212ba405/033054a1e80e99a35/0330549ee80a3ca01/index.html.

'Abyssinisches Dorf' (Äthiopien)

Abyssinian village (Ethiopia)

XBA2642.jpg

'Carl Hagenbecks Galla-Truppe' (Äthiopien)

Carl Hagenbecks Galla group (Ethiopia)

Galla is a word with negative connotation for the Oromo. Today it is offensive, but was commonly used to describe the Oromo in western literature.

XBA2695.jpg

Äthiopien, 'Isa und Habr Auel'

Isaaq and Habr Awal, girls and woman.

I am not sure why he used Isa and Habr Auel, which are Somali clans. Maybe they got the translation wrong.

XBA2654.jpg

Äthiopien, 'Scene aus dem Friedensschluss'

Ethiopia, scene from a peace agreement

XBA2666.jpg

Äthiopien, 'Kampfscene'

Ethiopia, fight scene

XBA2668.jpg

Äthiopien, 'Isa- Häuptling und Krieger'

Ethiopia, (Isa-) chief and warrior.

XBA2692.jpg

Äthiopien, 'Kampfscene'

Ethiopia, fight scene

XBA2664.jpg

Äthiopien, 'Isa-Krieger'

Ethiopia, (Isa) warriors

XBA2667.jpg

Äthiopien, 'Habr Auel-Häuptling mit Familie'

Ethiopia, 'Habr Auel, chief and familiy'

XBA2663.jpg

Äthiopien, 'Hochzeitstanz'

Ethiopia, marriage dance.

XBA2665.jpg

The web page Human Zoos has more pictures. One page is dedicated to Ethiopia.

Äthiopien, Dankali-Krieger

Ethiopia, Dankali warriors.

1909-Hagenbeck-Aethiopien-5.-Dankali-Kri

Äthiopien, Habr Auel-Krieger

Ethiopia, (Habr Auel-) warriors

1909-Hagenbeck-Aethiopien-8.-Habr-Auel-K

Äthiopien, Dankali-Mädchen im Brautschmuck

Ethiopia, Danakil girl in wedding jewellery

Danakil refers to the Danakil Depression. The Danakil Depression is one of the lowest places on earth (100 m below seal level) and the hottest place on earth. The Afar people live in the Danakil Depression, therefore the image probably refers to a Afar woman in wedding jewellery.

1909-Hagenbeck-Aethiopien-10.-Dankali-Ma

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The Afar (also known as Danakil, Adali or Odali) reside in the Danakil Dessert. The hottest place on earth and one of the lowest.

The_Danakil_Desert.png

source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:The_Danakil_Desert.png

The most important weapon of the Afar is the Jile (also known as Qolxad or Toorey).

Qolxad_or_Jile.png

source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Qolxad_or_Jile.png

AFARS-54.jpg

source: http://www.sylvainsavolainen.com/en/photo/les-afars/page=1

vlbpupzwdvpayhfmm8fv.jpg

source: https://www.picfair.com/pics/09034873-afar-tribe-woman-dancing-with-a-jile-knife-during-expo-festival-central

mm.jpg

source: https://mulukenfamilycom.wordpress.com/2016/02/15/awash-7-kilo-afar-families-2/

AS0095_Afar_Mann.jpg

AS0094_Afar_Mann.jpg

source for both images: https://austria-forum.org/af/Geography/Africa/Ethiopia/Pictures/Danakil/Afar_People_-_Curved_Dagger

1-783.jpg

11-53.jpg

2-779.jpg

4-653.jpg

10-62.jpg

source: https://www.africa-gallery.nl/product/1688402/200522-tribal-used-old-african-ethiopian-afar-sword-with-leather-case-ethiopia

The Afar helped Amda Seyon I and Baeda Maryam I.  Baeda Maryam fought against the Dobe'a.

Quote

the "Dankalé," the ruler of the Danakil (better known as the Afar), offered to intervene and help in the Emperor's campaign. He sent the Emperor a horse, a mule laden with dates, a shield, and two spears to show his support, along with a message saying, "I have set up my camp, O my master, with the intention of stopping these people. If they are your enemies, I will not let them pass, and will seize them." (source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baeda_Maryam_I)

 

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On 6/20/2020 at 4:56 PM, m7600 said:

General and specific names for the roster:

Ethiopian woman - ye’ītiyop’iya sētochi

Infantry spearman - t’ori sewi

Infantry archer - k’esitenya

Infantry javelin - javīlīni

Cavalry spearman - feresenya t’ori

Cavalry swordsman - feresenya goradē

Champion spear cavalry - shamipīyoni t’ori

Champion Shotel infantry - meshenitai
 

Mercenaries:

Camel archer - gimeli k’esiti

Oromo cavalry javelineer - ye’oromo feresenyochi

Afar axeman - ye’āfari met’irebīya sewi

I like the roster. Except for the mercenaries. I think the only possible mercenary would be the Afar warrior (sword and shield).

I used your roster and added a few units and removed others.

Heroes

Special Unit

The governors are mounted units with shotel sword, lance and a pretty decorated horse. They are powerful units giving the other warriors around them a bonus while capturing buildings and a fighting bonus.

Champion

  • Champion Shotel Infantary - meshenitai
  • Champion Spear (Lance) Cavalry
  • Champion Archer

Cavalry

  • Cavalry Spearman
  • Cavalry Javelineer

Infantry

  • Infantery Spearman
  • Infantery Javelineer
  • Infantry Archer

Worker

  • Ethiopian Woman

In addition, monks and priest. Or even the Debtera as @Ultimate Aurelian pointed out.

I was unable to find any pictures of bows, the reason is the Ethiopia army started using guns in the 16th century.

 

Edited by balduin
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Another, special unit should be: donkeys. Donkeys increase the gathering rate of nearby workers.

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7 hours ago, balduin said:

Another, special unit should be: donkeys. Donkeys increase the gathering rate of nearby workers.

I would like to include donkeys. The only problem that I see with your suggestion for the mechanics is that, what happens if you have several donkeys near workers? Does the bonus stack if you have a lot of donkeys? That could lead to an imbalance. One solution would be that the bonus does not stack, but if that's the case... why would you train more than one donkey? So the solution for this other problem could be that you have several donkeys, but you distribute them in several areas of the map, having one of them for each group of workers. I'm not fully convinced by this idea though. A different concept could be a donkey with a carriage and some workers, and it would function like the Mauryan worker elephant: mobile dropsite and builder. What do you think?

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1 hour ago, m7600 said:

what happens if you have several donkeys near workers?

Maybe, it will become a problem or it is no problem at all. I would try it in the game. You can increase/decrease the radius of the gathering effect, limit the amount of donkeys which can be trained, increase the population cost of a donkey or as you pointed out make the donkeys a mobile drop side.

I think starting of with making the donkeys a mobile drop side is the easiest approach. In this case you can look at the Mauryan worker elephant and disable the ability to build. A donkey can not build a house ;).

 

 

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The title of the Ethiopian Emperor was nəgusä nägäst which means Kings of Kings. This title should be understood literally. For example, the Sultanat of Ifat was a Muslim "Kindgdom". Ifat rebelled against Amda Seyon I, who defeated the rebels of Ifat. Afterwards Amda Seyon I decided who can become king, he selected members of the Walashma dynasty, the same dynasty rebelling against him. Basically, Ifat was more or less a Kindgdom in the Ethiopian Kindgdom. The major difference between both was the religion. The Ethiopians were Christians and the people of the Sultanat of Ifat Muslims.

Ifat was rich because of the sea trade with Asian and Arabic countries. The trading ships used were dhows. They used the same trading network as the Zimbabweans. Therefore both the Zimbabweans and Ethiopians should have the dhow as trading ship:

 

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On 6/20/2020 at 5:01 PM, m7600 said:

ethio_warriors.jpg

 

On 6/20/2020 at 7:47 PM, Ultimate Aurelian said:

Not sure about that image the cavalry looks like a Bagirmi or Bornu warrior.

Mahdists, from modern day Sudan:

Mahdist heavy cavalry sudan.jpg

.

On 6/15/2020 at 8:03 PM, Ultimate Aurelian said:

From what i can gather Sudanese art depicts mailed warriors (Alongside with a mail fragment from Alodia).

Yeah, chain mail was widespread from Sudan,

ece7d8d7b44b3577c8071296139c8d26.jpg

 

To Bornu:

Body Guard of the Sheikh of Bornou Kanem Bornu denham3.jpg64eb143156b526b9539e7e9d60846883.jpg

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1 hour ago, Sundiata said:

Yeah, chain mail was widespread from Sudan,

ece7d8d7b44b3577c8071296139c8d26.jpg

 

To Bornu:

Body Guard of the Sheikh of Bornou Kanem Bornu denham3.jpg64eb143156b526b9539e7e9d60846883.jpg

Do you think it would be inaccurate to use it for Ethiopian units ?

According to wikipedia Somalia used mail as well:

Quote

The Adal soldiers donned elaborate helmets and steel armour made up of chain-mail with overlapping tiers

As a source the article  cites ''Conquest of Abyssinia by Shibab ad-Din pg 43''.

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9 hours ago, Ultimate Aurelian said:

Do you think it would be inaccurate to use it for Ethiopian units ?

I've never seen chain mail on Abyssinians, so I was originally inclined to think that it would probably be inaccurate, as far as I could tell... But it turns out I was wrong.

 

9 hours ago, Ultimate Aurelian said:

According to wikipedia Somalia used mail as well:

Quote

The Adal soldiers donned elaborate helmets and steel armour made up of chain-mail with overlapping tiers

As a source the article  cites ''Conquest of Abyssinia by Shibab ad-Din pg 43''.

Yeah, but those were muslim enemies of Abyssinia. 

BUT,

I learned about some other passages in the Futuh Al-Habasa (Conquest of Abyssinia), from a Portuguese history teacher I sometimes interact with on Historum, called Tulius. 

I'll just quote him:

Quote

About defensive protections of the body used by the Ethiopians in the 16th century we can see references made in “Futuh Al-Habasa”:

“All the Christians, and the infidel army, with their soldiers assembled in Bet Amhara in untold numbers, wearing armour composed of chain rings set in neatly tired rows, and with awesome weaponry” ) Bin Utman, “Futuh Al-Habasa”, pp. 47-48.

And:

“Army fused army, swords were unsheathed, spear tips were aimed, emblems and banners were unfurled, flags fluttered, bridles clanked, horses whinnied, vas clouds of dust billowed up, and sweat poured from the breasts of the soldiers on account of the weight of the armour […] the blows of the swords hitting the hide-covered shields and the iron helmets shaped like ostrich eggs.” (and continues…) Bin Utman, “Futuh Al-Habasa”, p. 81.

And in the chronicle of Francisco Álvares:

“E os oito destes xumagalis traziam vestidas muito boas couraças das nossas, delas postas em veludo, e delas em corovão, e cravação dourada. Estes oito traziam capacetes dos nossos nas cabeças. E nestes oito entrava Balgadarobel, e os vinte e dois todos traziam saias de malha com mangas compridas muito apertadas ao corpo.” Francisco Álvares, “Verdadeira Informação das Terras do Prestes João das Indias”, p.236.

My translation:

“And the eight of these “xumagalis” [men from the noble] wore very good breastplates of ours, placed in velvet, and in “corovão” [a kind of leather], and gilded setting. These eight wore helmets of ours on their heads. And with these eight Balgadarobel [an Ethiopian noble] entered, and the twenty-two all wore ring metal skirts with long sleeves that were very tight to the body.

So, yeah, to my utter surprise, they did indeed use chainmail to some degree...

The only depiction I've ever seen of Ethiopian chainmail was an Osprey illustration, depicting an Ethiopian noble cavalry man, alongside Portuguese allies during the Abyssinian-Adal war:

1000.jpg 

 

Heroes could use these quilted cotton armors (or perhaps just caparisons?):

36064753172_09ecc765d2_o-1.jpg

ethio_0066-2127_2001_num_17_1-1.jpeg

28623f3b01728e84f2dc3fbfeec6d512-1.jpg

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On another note, I'm thinking of changing the name Ethiopians to Zagweans, or better yet, Begwenans. Since Gondarine architecture will not be used, and since the rock-church style will be prevalent, I think it's more fitting to change everything to the Zagwe dynasty. This will add a couple of more weeks to this project, but I think it's worth it. What do you think?

Here are some great references:

https://www.zamaniproject.org/site-ethiopia-lalibela-rock-hewn-churches.html

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23 hours ago, m7600 said:

On another note, I'm thinking of changing the name Ethiopians to Zagweans, or better yet, Begwenans. Since Gondarine architecture will not be used, and since the rock-church style will be prevalent, I think it's more fitting to change everything to the Zagwe dynasty. This will add a couple of more weeks to this project, but I think it's worth it. What do you think?

Here are some great references:

https://www.zamaniproject.org/site-ethiopia-lalibela-rock-hewn-churches.html

i think  early Solomonic period (around 1270-1529) might be better.

Rock churches are not very inaccurate for that period (They were very likely still used for worship); but the current CC would be inaccurate for Zagwe (Based on the 14th century Debre Abbay monastery).

 

 

 

Edited by Ultimate Aurelian
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10 hours ago, Sundiata said:

Heroes could use these quilted cotton armors

I actually think they used some quilted cotton armors. However, I was unable to find anything definitive.

10 hours ago, Sundiata said:

The only depiction I've ever seen of Ethiopian chainmail was an Osprey illustration

Almost all the wall paintings from the Ethiopian churches show Ethiopian warriors without chainmails. Even later in photographs and engravings none of them show warriors with chainmails. However, what you see a lot with the Portuguese arrival is guns. The Ethiopians were very fast in adopting guns.

What surprises me is, that the Ethiopians were more willing to accept weapons from Christian empires, than from the Muslims.

 

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