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Lion.Kanzen

[Idea from a fan] Andineans

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Culture of Moche.

 

The Moche civilization (alternatively, the Mochica culture or the Early, Pre- or Proto-Chimú) flourished in northern Peru with its capital near present-day Moche, TrujilloPeru[1] from about 100 to 800 during the Regional Development Epoch. While this issue is the subject of some debate, many scholars contend that the Moche were not politically organized as a monolithic empire or state. Rather, they were likely a group of autonomous polities that shared a common elite culture, as seen in the rich iconographyand monumental architecture that survive today.

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Each age features one or two primary cultures. A "primary culture" may be defined as the strongest and most influential culture of its age.

Like Mesoamerica, the Andean region features a mother culture: the Chavin culture, which diffused widely and served as the foundation of subsequent Andean cultures. This culture is named after its main settlement, Chavin de Huantar, which consists of a temple complex surrounded by a town. The temple complex features an abundance of imaginative stone sculptures, which combine elements of humans, cats, birds, and reptiles.

While the Chavin culture spanned both coastal desert and mountains, the two primary cultures of the Early Intermediate period were limited to the coastal desert. The Moche flourished along the northern coast of Peru, the Nazca along the southern coast.11 Andean pottery reached its culmination in these two cultures.

----------out timeframe context----------------

During the Middle Horizon, Andean civilization was united by two great powers: the Wari Empire in the north and the Tiwanaku Empire in the south.11 (This period marks the rise of the first cities in South America; thus, Andean civilization was born during the Middle Horizon.) The cultures of these empires were similar, such that one can speak of an overall "Tiwanaku-Wari culture".

Cultural and political fragmentation returned, however, in the Late Intermediate period. The mightiest culture of this age was the Chimu civilization, which flourished along the northern Peruvian coast.11 The scale of Chimu achievement in both engineering (e.g. buildings, roads, irrigation systems) and administration was unprecedented in the Andean region.24 The Chimu capital was the vast city of Chan Chan.

 

The term "Late Horizon" denotes the age of the Inca Empire as the dominant power of the Andes. Although quite short (about half a century), a small Inca state had existed for centuries prior to the Late Horizon. The Inca's dramatic success was based largely on the absorption of Chimu expertise in engineering and administration. The Inca capital was Cuzco, Peru.11

The Inca made the transition from stone tools to bronze tools (e.g. axes, knives, hoes), thereby becoming the only pre-colonial American civilization to achieve the Bronze age (see The Stone, Bronze, and Iron Ages). Although they lacked a writing system, the Inca developed an intricate method of recording numbers with colour-coded knotted cords. They also maintained a network of running messengers along the empire's thousands of miles of roads, allowing news to be swiftly delivered between any two points.A264,11

Ca. 1530, the Inca Empire fell to forces under Francisco Pizarro. As noted in the previous section, the Aztec Empire fell to the Spanish ca. 1520. In order to avoid mixing up these two dates, it may be helpful to remember that the Andes region, being farther away from Europe than Mesoamerica (from the perspective of westward-sailing Europeans), was predictably conquered at a somewhat later date than Mesoamerica.

Edited by Lion.Kanzen
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