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On a more touchy matter these days, how does one balance a civilization that has no cavalry, and likely no ships other than the fishing ship and maybe the merchant one ? 

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22 minutes ago, Nescio said:

It partially is, yes. (I also think the “Iberians”, an amalgam which includes many non-Iberian peoples, is too insignificant, yet it is included nevertheless.) However, why ought e.g. the Yayoi period be included, other than being Japan in 0 A.D.'s timeframe? Did they heavily influence their neighbours? Did they construct lasting monuments? Have any literary works survived? Have their cults or language reshaped large parts of Eurasia? I fear the answer to these questions is no; merely “being there” and nothing else seems just insignificant.

Brutal... lol... I guess you're right, although... that inner shrine at Ise is a lasting monument (and a nice one). Shinto, the traditional religion of Japan, is still widely practiced today. Some important Shinto Shrines date to the Yayoi period. There are Han Chinese literary works discussing the Yayoi. The fact that they were (sort of) the ancestors of the later Imperial Japan (one of the most powerful empires of the East), makes their early history interesting by default. But I concede that they wouldn't stand a chance against Romans :/ 

 

Just now, stanislas69 said:

On a more touchy matter these days, how does one balance a civilization that has no cavalry, and likely no ships other than the fishing ship and maybe the merchant one ? 

You probably can't... You can choose to play with them at your own risk :P They're kind of like Zapotecs in that regard. Perfect for Terra Magna. Maybe "just" a mini-civ-derivative for vanilla?

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lol I really want to play with this, I'll refrain from doing so until we have our current projects tucked away ofc, but depicting a side of Japanese history most aren't familiar with sounds like tons of fun

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4 hours ago, LordGood said:

lol I really want to play with this, I'll refrain from doing so until we have our current projects tucked away ofc, but depicting a side of Japanese history most aren't familiar with sounds like tons of fun

That's my pony :P

200w.gif

 

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2 minutes ago, Alexandermb said:

We could start this for release in alpha 24? We did magic with Byzantines and Carolingians in only 1 alpha.

We are here to support you.

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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Izumo_Province

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Even today, the Izumo Shrine constitutes (as does the Grand Shrine of Ise) one of the most important sacred places of Shinto: it is dedicated to kami, especially to Ōkuninushi (Ō-kuni-nushi-no-mikoto), mythical progeny of Susanoo and all the clans of Izumo. The mythological mother of Japan, the goddess Izanami, is said to be buried on Mt. Hiba, at the border of the old provinces of Izumo and Hōki, near modern-day Yasugi of Shimane Prefecture.

By the Sengoku period, Izumo had lost much of its importance. It was dominated before the Battle of Sekigahara by the Mōri clan, and after Sekigahara, it was an independent fief with a castle town at modern Matsue.

In Japanese mythology, the entrance to Yomi (Hell, land of the dead) was located within the province, and was sealed by the god Izanagi by placing a large boulder over the entrance.

 

Izumo-taisha14bs4592.jpg

Edited by Lion.Kanzen
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The Kofun period (古墳時代, Kofun jidai) is an era in the history of Japan from around 250 to 538 AD, following the Yayoi period. The Kofun and the subsequent Asuka periods are sometimes collectively referred to as the Yamato period. This period is the earliest era of recorded history in Japan, and studies depend heavily on archaeology as the chronology of historical sources tends to be very distorted.

This was a period of cultural import. Continuing from the Yayoi period, the Kofun period is characterized by a strong influence from the Korean Peninsula, and archaeologists now think of this period in terms of a shared elite culture across the southern Korean Peninsula, Kyūshū and Honshū.[1] The word kofun is Japanese for the type of burial mounds dating from this era, and archaeology makes clear that the mound tombs and material culture of elites were similar across the region. From China, Buddhism and the Chinese writing system were introduced towards the end of the period.

The Kofun period also recorded the earliest political centralization in Japan, when the Yamato clan rose to power in southwestern Japan and eventually established the Imperial House. The Yamato clan also helped control trade routes across the region.[

 

Wa () or Yamato were the names early China used to refer to an ethnic group living in Japan around the time of the Three Kingdoms period. Chinese, Korean, and Japanese scribes regularly wrote Wa or Yamato with one and the same Chinese character 倭 until the 8th century, when the Japanese found fault with it, replacing it with 和 "harmony, peace, balance". Retroactively, this character was adopted in Japan to refer to the country itself, often combined with the character 大, literally meaning "Great", similar to Great Britain, so as to write the preexisting name Yamato (大和) (e.g., such as 大清帝國 “Great Qing Empire”, 大英帝國 “Great British Empire”). The pronunciation Yamato cannot be formed from the sounds of its constituent characters; it is speculated to originally refer to a place in Japan meaning "Mountain Gate" (山戸).[7]

The historical province of Yamato (now Nara Prefecture in central Honshu) borders Yamashiro Province (now the southern part of Kyōto Prefecture); however, the names of both provinces appear to contain the Japonic etymon yama, usually meaning "mountain(s)" (but sometimes having a meaning closer to "forest," especially in some Ryukyuan languages). Some other pairs of historical provinces of Japan exhibit similar sharing of one etymological element, such as Kazusa (<*Kami-tu-Fusa, "Upper Fusa") and Shimōsa (<*Simo-tu-Fusa, "Lower Fusa") or Kōzuke (<*Kami-tu-Ke, "Upper Ke") and Shimotsuke (<*Simo-tu-Ke, "Lower Ke"). In these latter cases, the pairs of provinces with similar names are thought to have been created through the subdivision of an earlier single province in prehistoric or protohistoric times.

Although the etymological origins of Wa remain uncertain, Chinese historical texts recorded an ancient people residing in the Japanese archipelago, named something like *ʼWâ or *ʼWər 倭. Carr[8] surveys prevalent proposals for Wa's etymology ranging from feasible (transcribing Japanese first-person pronouns waga 我が "my; our" and ware 我 "I; we; oneself") to shameful (writing Japanese Wa as 倭 implying "dwarf"), and summarizes interpretations for *ʼWâ "Japanese" into variations on two etymologies: "behaviorally 'submissive' or physically 'short'." The first "submissive; obedient" explanation began with the (121 CE) Shuowen Jiezi dictionary. It defines 倭 as shùnmào 順皃 "obedient/submissive/docile appearance", graphically explains the "person; human' radical with a wěi 委 "bent" phonetic, and quotes the above Shi Jing poem. "Conceivably, when Chinese first met Japanese," Carr[9] suggests "they transcribed Wa as *ʼWâ 'bent back' signifying 'compliant' bowing/obeisance. Bowing is noted in early historical references to Japan." Examples include "Respect is shown by squatting",[10] and "they either squat or kneel, with both hands on the ground. This is the way they show respect."[11]

Koji Nakayama interprets wēi 逶 "winding" as "very far away" and euphemistically translates 倭 as "separated from the continent." The second etymology of 倭 meaning "dwarf (variety of an animal or plant species), midget, little people" has possible cognates in ǎi 矮 "low, short (of stature)", 踒 "strain; sprain; bent legs", and 臥 "lie down; crouch; sit (animals and birds)". Early Chinese dynastic histories refer to a Zhūrúguó 侏儒國 "pygmy/dwarf country" located south of Japan, associated with possibly Okinawa Island or the Ryukyu Islands. Carr cites the historical precedence of construing Wa as "submissive people" and the "Country of Dwarfs" legend as evidence that the "little people" etymology was a secondary development.

History of usage[edit]

Resultado de imagen para kofun era547e770598cfc01bb6f219ff66124e9ddb08af6c.jpeg?1924714f68e3fbfae52a35f03a8252b8a5d3c966ce2a7b2.jpeg?1925050ebc73df40233d68f727623a77853f808--japanese-warrior-japanese-clothing.jpg

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Yamatai-koku (邪馬台国?) or Yamaichi-koku (邪馬壹國?) (c. 1st century – c. 3rd century) is the Sino-Japanese name of an ancient country in Wa (Japan) during the late Yayoi period (c. BC 300 – c. 300 AD).

The Chinese text Records of the Three Kingdoms first recorded as Yamatai guo (traditional Chinese: 邪馬臺國) or Yemayi guo (traditional Chinese: 邪馬壹國) as the domain of Priest-Queen Himiko (died c. 248 AD). Generations of Japanese historians, linguists, and archeologists have debated where Yamatai-koku was located and whether it was related to the later Yamato (大和?).

Earlier Chinese ca. 432 CE Hou Han Shu (Book of Later/Eastern Han) accounts had described the land of Wa (Japan) as such:

“In the middle of the Lo-lang sea there are the Wa people. They are subdivided into more than a hundred ‘countries'[called communities in some translations]. Depending on the season they come and offer tribute”.

Thirty of these countries were known to have had direct contact with China. Historians equate these “countries” with chiefdoms.

The Chinese Wei Zhi  accounts in 297 A.D. asserted that Yamatai kingdom was the strongest of those countries. Yamatai country was victorious after years of warfare. Gishi no Wajinden noted decades of warfare had ensued until “the people agreed upon a woman for their ruler”, i.e. when Queen Himiko came to the throne. Towards the end of 2nd century, around 30 small chiefdoms had allied with each other to form a confederated kingdom or state known as “Yamatai country” (Yamatai koku) with Queen Himiko at the helm.

Queen Himiko was known to the Chinese because her government had sent a diplomatic mission in the year 238 A.D. to the Wei emperor, Cao Rui’s court, and the delegation was received as presenting tribute to the Chinese emperor. As such, Queen Himiko was recognized as the ruler of Wa:

“Herein we address Himiko (Pimiko is used), Queen of Wa, whom we now officially call a friend of Wei …  [Your ambassadors] have arrived here with your tribute, consisting of four male slaves and six female slaves, together with two pieces of cloth with designs, each twenty feet in length. You live very far away across the sea; yet you have sent an embassy with tribute. Your loyalty and filial piety we appreciate exceedingly. We confer upon you, therefore, the title “Queen of Wa  Friendly to Wei”.

Queen Himiko may have held the ceremonial role of a shaman priestess, prophetess or perhaps, a pre-eminent shrine maiden with proxy access to the gods for the people.

Gishi no Wajinden described her as a having “occupied herself with magic and sorcery, bewitching the people”. Shrouded in mystery, Queen Himiko was said to have controlled the kingdoms by sorcery and magic. She was seldom seen in public and was attended by “one thousand attendants, but only one man”.

Queen Himiko.

himiko-newton-graphic-science-magazine-nihon-no-ruutsu-2000-nen-6-gatsu-10-nichi

himikos-palace-osaka-yayoi-cultural-center

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First Part: Yayoi Period (400B.C-250AD)

 

cultura-yayoi-jap%C3%B3n-1.jpgJapão wallpaper titled Ancient Japanese Clothing, Yayoi Period (400 B.C. - 250 A.D.)

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The next cultural period, the Yayoi (named after the section of Tokyo where archaeological investigations uncovered its traces) flourished between about 300 B.C. and A.D. 250 from southern Kyushu to northern Honshu. The earliest of these people, who are thought to have migrated from Korea to northern Kyushu and intermixed with the Jomon, also used chipped stone tools. Although the pottery of the Yayoi was more technologically advanced -- produced on a potter's wheel -- it was more simply decorated than Jomon ware. The Yayoi made bronze ceremonial nonfunctional bells, mirrors, and weapons and, by the first century A.D., iron agricultural tools and weapons. As the population increased and society became more complex, they wove cloth, lived in permanent farming villages, constructed buildings of wood and stone, accumulated wealth through landownership and the storage of grain, and developed distinct social classes.

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The earliest written records about Japan are from Chinese sources from this period. Wa (the Japanese pronunciation of an early Chinese name for Japan) was first mentioned in A.D. 57. Early Chinese historians described Wa as a land of hundreds of scattered tribal communities, not the unified land with a 700-year tradition as laid out in the Nihongi, which puts the foundation of Japan at 660 B.C.

Third-century Chinese sources reported that the Wa people lived on raw vegetables, rice, and fish served on bamboo and wooden trays, had vassal-master relations, collected taxes, had provincial granaries and markets, clapped their hands in worship (something still done in Shinto shrines), had violent succession struggles, built earthen grave mounds, and observed mourning. Himiko, a female ruler of an early political federation known as Yamatai, flourished during the third century. While Himiko reigned as spiritual leader, her younger brother carried out affairs of state, which included diplomatic relations with the court of the Chinese Wei Dynasty (A.D. 220-65).

Data as of January 1994

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Facial anthropology confirms that Japanese are basically Yayoi race with slight admixture of Jomon in their appearance, in other words physically they were almost no different to the ancient Yayoi with the acception of an very few. A few Japanese may look 1/2 Jomon but you won't find an Japanese who look like like an full bearded Ainu.

Yayoi migrants assimilated the Jomons from Southern Japan and Okinawa. Later they conquered the Jomon lands of North Japan and assimilated the Emishi ( Mostly Jomon with some mixture of Jomon/Yayoi). The Yayoi Japanese later conquered conquered Jomon/Ainu of southern Hokkaido penisula, and during the empire of Japan they conquered the Hokkaido islands. So the Jomon components maybe just slightly bit more in north Japan of Hokkaido (not that I see any difference from other Japanese) they look look very East Asian Mongoloids.
 

10ck7ps.jpg2009050810200975b.jpgRestored faces of men from the Jomon and Yayoi periods

58194473d6568.gif

Edited by Lion.Kanzen

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Second Part: (Early Yamato) Kofun Period (250-540AD)

https://heritageofjapan.wordpress.com/following-the-trail-of-tumuli/rebellion-in-kyushu-and-the-rise-of-royal-estates/village-settlement-patterns-the-homestead-emerges/major-events-in-the-kofun-period/

Resultado de imagen para kofun eraa0021033_8372299.jpg-image14.jpg

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Pile building style of rice granaries expanded for more buildings

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Haniwa of a luxurious palace with three pavilions, all with saddle-shaped roofs

 

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The Kofun period (古墳時代, Kofun-jidai) is an era in the history of Japan from around 250 to 538. The word kofun is Japanese for the type of burial mounds dating from this era.

During the Kofun period, elements of Chinese culture continued to influence culture in the Japanese archipelago, both through waves of migration and through trade, travel and cultural change. Archaeological evidence indicates contacts between the mainland and Japan also during this period. Most scholars believe that there were massive transmissions of technology and culture from China via Korea to Japan which is evidenced by material artifacts in tombs of both states in the Proto–Three Kingdoms of Korea and Kofun period, as well as the later wave of Baekje refugees to Yamato.

Archaeological records and ancient Chinese sources Book of Song indicate that the various tribes and chiefdom of the Japanese Archipelago did not begin to coalesce into more centralized and hierarchical polities until 300 (well into the Kofun period), when large tombs begin to appear while there were no contacts between the Wa and China. Some describe the "mysterious century" as a time of internecine warfare as various local monarchies competed for hegemony on Kyūshū and Honshū.

Japan of the Kofun age was positive in the introduction of Chinese culture. Several kinds of goods were imported. Books from China were one of the most important trade goods. Chinese philosophy that had been introduced in this era, had a big influence on the history of Japan. Decorated bronze mirrors (Shinju-kyo) were imported from China. Japan imported iron from Korean peninsula until the latter half of the 6th century.

In this period, Baekje received military support from Japan. According to the Samguk Sagi, King Asin of Baekje sent his son Jeonji to Japan in 397[4] and King Silseong of Silla sent his son Misaheun to Japan in 402 in order to solicit military aid.[

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yamato_

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People made their living by cultivating rice but to elevate the lean times during late winter, they planted other crops and also hunted and fished.

They worked rice fields with good drainage and with immigrant technology, built irrigation facilities that had become the norm. During the period, the Kofun people also extensively reclaimed wasteland or developed wet marshes as agricultural land. Due to the keen cooperation required to construct irrigation ditches and to work the fields and bring in the harvests, relationships, ranks, and rules within the community became established.

Throughout the land of Japan, as close-knit communities, people of the Kofun Period held and attended agricultural ceremonies such as festivals (Toshigoi) to pray for good harvests and thanksgiving festivals (Niname festival) which are thought to have been introduced by the toraijin immigrants. Ritual life and magic governed their lives.

https://heritageofjapan.wordpress.com/following-the-trail-of-tumuli/faces-and-society-of-the-kofun-period/

A Man Wearing Kinu (cloth) and Hakama (pleated skit for man)
Explanation
005-a.gif 005-b.gif

 

 

005-c.gif

 

1 Mizura
2 Kinu
3 Hakama
4 Shizuri Belt
5 Chest Ribbon for Kinu
6 Tamaki Band and Gem
7 Pants Strap
8 Necklace with Gems
9 Kabutsuchi Long Sword
10

Leather Shoes

 

A Man Wearing Kinu, Hakama and Mo (pleated skit)
Explanation
006-a.gif 006-b.gif
 
006-c.gif
1 Kinu and Crown
2 Mizura-style Hair
3 Necklace
4 Kinu (cloth)
5 Chest Roibbon for Kinu
6 Walking Stick
7 Sleeve Strap and Gem
8 Shizuri Belt
9 Long Kabutsuchi Sword
10 Mo (pleated skirt)
11 Pants Strap
12 Hakama
13 Leather Shoes
Ancient Prietess Wearing a Sash
Explanation
008-a.gif 008-b.gif
 
008-c.gif
1 Earrings
2 Necklace with Gems
3 Sash
4 Cloth
5 Chest Ribbon for Cloth
6 Shizuri Belt
7 Mo (pleated skirt)

 

 

A Warrior in a Short Suit of Armor
Explanation
009-a.gif 009-b.gif
 
009-c.gif
1 Ornamental Pheasant Feather on Top of Shokaku-tsuki Kabuto (helmet)
2 Shokaku-tsuki Kabuto
3 Neckplates
4 Neck Protector
5 Shoulder Protector
6 Body Protector
7 Bracelets
8 Kabutsuchi Tachi (long sword)
9 Tassets
10 Cloth
11 Belt of Shizuri
12 Divided Skirt for Men
13 Pants Straps
14 Shoes
15 Arrows [installed in a Yanagui holder]
16 Log Archery
17 Short Sword at the Side
18 Archer's wrist protector [Worn on the Left Hand]
Warrior Wearing Keiko (horizontally linked protector)
Explanation
010-a.gif 010-b.gif
 
010-c.gif
1 Mabizashi-tsuki Kabuto (visored helmet)
2 Cup crest of Mabizashi-tsuki Kabuto
3 Neck Plates of Kabuto
4 Shoulder Protector
5 Body Protector
6 Kinu (cloth)
7 Bracelet
8 Quiver to Install Arrows
9 Tassets
10 Divided Skirt
11 Pants Strap
12 Shoes
13 Log Archery
14 Kanto Tachi
15 Shizuri Belt
16 Short Sword
17 Arrow
18 Archer's Wrist Protector [worn on the left hand]

 

tumblr_mqil9rSeMy1ri6x74o1_1280.jpg

Weavers of the Kofun Period (3rd to 6th century) , Japan. Scan from book “The History of Women’s Costume in Japan.”  Scanned by Lumikettu of Flickr.  Japanese costume many centuries ago…recreation accomplished in Kyoto during the 1930’

 

Resultado de imagen para kofun eraImagen relacionada

 

image2.jpg

 

Edited by Lion.Kanzen

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Emperor Jimmu (神武天皇, Jinmu-tennō) was the first Emperor of Japan, according to legend. His accession is traditionally dated as 660 BC.[3][4] According to Japanese mythology, he is a descendant of the sun goddess Amaterasu, through her grandson Ninigi, as well as a descendant of the storm god Susanoo. He launched a military expedition from Hyuga near the Inland Sea, captured Yamato, and established this as his center of power. In modern Japan, Jimmu's accession is marked as National Foundation Day on February 11.

 

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The Wei Chih records her first encounter with the Chinese, in the summer of  239, when she sent emissaries to the Wei emperor Ming, who granted her the title  Ch’in-wei Wo Wang—’Wa ruler friendly to Wei’. He also sent her many gifts. Six  years later the Chinese bestowed a military title on her envoy, suggesting that fight-  ing had already begun between Himiko’s Yamatai and a neighbouring land called  Kona (or Kunu)—possibly a rebellion.  The war was apparently going against Himiko, as the Wei Chih says abruptly that  she died, and makes no mention of the outcome of the struggle. A huge tumulus  was built for her (it has not been identified with any certainty, but there is a good  claim for a large one in Kyûshû), and over 100 servants followed her in death. The  historian Saeki Arikiyo has speculated that she was ritually killed by subordinate  chieftains when the tide of battle turning against them was viewed as a sign of her  waning magical powers. There was a brief attempt by a male to take power, but he  was almost immediately replaced by a woman named Queen Iyo.  When the Yoshinogari ruins, the remains of a large Yayoi settlement, were un-  earthed in February 1989, there was speculation that Himiko’s capital had at last  been found. Others feel that it was only the seat of one of her vassal states, as its  size could not have been large enough for Himiko’s stature; it does, however, fea-  ture some of the structures mentioned in the Wei Chronicle.  Judging by archaeological evidence, the centre of power shifted at some point to  the Kinki region. It is likely that those who ruled in Honshû in the 4th century—the 

Yamato—were actual lineal descendants of those who had held sway in Kyûshû  during the years of the Wei intercourse a few centuries before.  One of the more tantalising ancient puzzles is that of the dôtoku, bells of curious  shape believed to have been used in religious rituals which, though dating to the  late Yayoi Period, have never been found in Kyûshû, while 200 have been un-  earthed in the Kansai. The Wei Chih makes no reference to them, despite their obvi-  ous importance to that society—another indication that Yamataikoku was not in  that area. The way in which they were all buried conveniently near the surface and  in relatively easily found places, some even still in their moulds, suggests that they  were hidden quickly, perhaps in response to an invasion.  It is more than likely that the cause was the migration of the militant Yamato  people, who, as archaeological finds indicate, possessed superior weapons and  technology. As early as the Wei Chih people from Wa are recorded as having trav-  elled to Korea for iron, and it is stated that by the later Yayoi Period iron sickles had  become plentiful enough to replace stone reaping knives. Since we know that war-  fare played an important part in Yayoi Japan—at least in Yamataikoku—it is only  logical to assume that some of that iron was quickly turned into swords and ar-  mour, though their principal metal was bronze until the 5th or 6th century.    The Yamato Sun Line  The ‘official’ establishment of the Japanese Imperial Court is attributed in the Kojiki  and Nihon Shoki (the first two domestic histories written in Japanese) to the

Emperor Kamu Yamato Iware Biko (a.k.a. Jinmu Tennô) who left Kyûshû for  Honshû in 667 BC. After a few years of travel, subduing local warrior clans on the  way, his first court was established at a place called Kashiwabara just south of  present-day Nara. Although historically unreliable, the account of the relocation of  the ‘court’ is doubtless based upon truth, but refers to a migration of circa AD 350,  not 667 BC (although there are some ancient Imperial tumuli in Kashiwabara—  some of the oldest).  The Kojiki and Nihon Shoki were compiled in 711 and 720 respectively. Consid-  ering that they were the first histories of Japan written by natives, they should have  been valuable sources; but, alas, they are highly unreliable on matters before the  6th century. Their antinomy is a difficult problem for the historian as well, as they  give different dates and ages for everything and everyone. They are even internally  inconsistent, a classic case being the Nihon Shoki mentioning that the brother of  Yamato Takeru was born in the twelfth year of the Emperor Keikô, yet in the fourth  year—eight years before his birth—he was supposed to have seduced the daughter  of Minotsukurikao. Both are full of such contradictions.  Notwithstanding references in domestic chronicles to Emperors ruling Japan in  the centuries before the birth of Christ, by the mid-4th century AD there was cer-  tainly a royal family of some sort holding at least a limited autocratic power in an  apparently more-or-less unified nation. This ruling line has been called the Yamato  Sun Line, probably originally a primus inter pares which grew out of the uji (roughly 

translatable as ‘clan’, but more literally a community of relatives and subordinates  represented and headed by a single leader) extant from the latter Yayoi days (after  AD 100). It is likely to have been 28 uji that Himiko ruled, and it is further possible  that the Yamato Sun Line was one of the lines that defeated or overthrew her. When  one takes into account that one of the few historically verifiable people in ancient  Japanese history—Himiko—is not mentioned in either of the two domestic histor-  ical chronicles written only about 500 years after her death, and which seek to glo-  rify the ruling line, one may wonder about her omission (unless, of course, she had  been relegated to the status of deity).  The name Yamato Sun Line was applied to the ruling house based upon their  claim of descent from Amaterasu Ômikami, the sun goddess; interestingly enough,  Himiko means, in archaic Japanese, ‘child of the sun’. The line eventually won full  control, and began assigning specific duties to each of the other uji, e.g. to provide  goods or services to their ruling house. The Soga, a family which would later grow  to amazing power, were in charge of taxes. The Nakatomi were priests, the Inbe  were diviners, the Mononobe were the professional soldiers, the Ôtomo were  hereditary palace guards, and so on. Early succession to the Imperial throne was  set by a consensus of uji heads, and as the uji had the honour of contributing wives  to the Imperial line they all had a stake in selecting offspring related to their own  lines. This system ended up producing some minor but bloody succession con-  flicts. 

 

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Rise of the Yamato State

  The account of the migration from Kyûshû has the Yamato people fighting with  local chieftains of tribes that they called barbarians (in the classic sense—i.e., a  people whose language they didn’t understand). They also called the enemy ‘earth-  spiders’, and ‘Emishi’. As Emishi is a name by which the Ainu would later be  known, and the word itself is an archaic cognate form of the Ainu word for ‘man’,  these must have been the ancestors of the Ainu, the caucasoid aboriginals of  northern Japan. 

The legendary Yamato Takeru is the archetype for Yamato heroes. There is no  empirical evidence that he ever existed, but the adventures of this son of Emperor  Keikô are recounted in the Kojiki. At the age of 16 he was sent to subdue the rebel-  lious Kumaso in Kyûshû. Disguising himself as a lady, he allowed himself to be  introduced to the rebel chieftains. During a banquet at which the chieftains drank  themselves into a stupor, Yamato Takeru pulled out a concealed blade and, like the  Biblical Rebecca, ended the rebellion then and there.  On the way home he tricked another enemy leader into switching swords (as a  sign of friendship) and then suggested a fencing bout; imagine the surprise of the  other upon finding that his sword, which he had just received from Yamato Takeru,  was wooden. He was even more surprised when his head landed on the ground a  few feet away a moment later. After many other great adventures Yamato Takeru fi-  nally died a lingering death after his heel touched a venomous dragon. Yamato  Takeru, the solitary wandering hero who conquered all enemies except the super-  natural, is the ultimate hero from the ancient period.  As evidenced by his tale, the Yamato and a people called Kumaso were inces-  santly at war. It has been suggested that the Kumaso were a South Sea people, or  perhaps of the same stock as the Yamato, but not blessed with the proximity to  Korea that the Yamato had enjoyed. There is no record of incompatibility of 

Resultado de imagen para early samurai angusResultado de imagen para early samurai angus

Edited by Lion.Kanzen

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Japan was fielding large armies long before there were Samurai, sending them to mainland Asia to intervene in Korea, marching against the Emishi, or engaging in wars at home. By the Kofun Period, and into the Asuka Period, the warriors of Japan were organized around the uji clans, the clan nobles supported by their toneri and yatsuko retainers. The armies relied heavily on foot archery from behind large standing shields, although warriors with long spears were also common. Some of the elite warriors later fought as armoured horse archers, ancestral to the early Samurai cavalry.

These models have the distinctive dress and equipment of this fascinating period. The heavy armour of the better armoured men is particularly solid and handsome in appearance. Note that the shields and pavises are sold separately so that the individual gamer can decide which models are provided with them, based on gaming representation requirements, historical research, or individual preference

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I have doubts  with....

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Edited by Lion.Kanzen

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New concepts were added to the ancient Japanese beliefs and rituals during the Yamato period,
including respect for clan ancestors and a mythology of divine ancestry for the Yamato dynasty.
Under the influence of Chinese Buddhism propagated by Korea during the sixth century, the
Japanese religion became more formalized as Shinto, the Way of the Kami. The kami were an
infinite number of natural spirits and powers that could be called upon for aid or appeased when
angered. The hierarchy of Shinto divinities was defined and the mythology was written down. The
rulers of Japan descended from the Sun Goddess, the supreme Shinto deity.
Early Shinto was positive and concerned with the present, not the past or an afterlife. It fostered a
reverence for a natural universe that was seen as good and ethical. Evil was identified with
impurity and the unnatural. Sincere honesty was the central virtue.

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During the Yamato period, tribal states of various sizes and power were brought together gradually
by a dynasty of Yamato clan rulers. The leader of the Yamato in the second half of this period was
known as the Daiõ, or Great King. The power of the Yamato was expanded and strengthened
through blood ties within the clan, their apparent military supremacy, diplomacy, and manipulation
of the sun myth that bestowed divinity on their ancestry.
The different tribal groups or clans were the nobility or uji class. Serving the uji was an
occupational/professional class called the be, who worked as farmers, scribes, traders, and
manufacturers. The lowest class were slaves. Immigrants fit in among both the uji and be,
depending on their skills and wealth.
In the seventh century, the Yamato transformed the government of Japan based on influences
from China. The Yamato sovereign became an imperial ruler supported by court and administrative
officials. The uji class was stripped of land and military power, but given official posts and stipends.
This political system remained in effect until around 1200 AD

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Architecture
The outstanding architectural achievements of the Yamato are their tombs. These are mounds of
earth in the shape of a keyhole if viewed from above. The largest tombs are found in the Yamato
region of Japan, and this is further evidence of power emanating from that locale. The Nintoku
tomb on the Osaka Plain rivals the Pyramids in size. The central tomb is 500 meters long and 35
meters high. It is surrounded by three moats with intervening belts of trees and covers 32
hectares. Stone burial chambers were excavated in the earth below the central tomb mound.
Military
Based on the large numbers of warrior figures, weapons, and pieces of armor
found in burial tombs from this era, warfare was apparently a common
feature of Yamato culture. Despite the existence of a dominant ruler,
clan groups found reason for conflict. All adult men were
available for military service and were required to serve for
at least one year. The uji class provided the elite
troops and officers for armes

Warrior figures from tombs are shown wearing full body armor and visored helmets. The most
commonly found weapons are swords, spears, and bow quivers. Horse figures are also found in
abundance, suggesting the existence of cavalry. The sudden appearance of horses in burial goods
around the fifth century has led to the hypothesis that Japan was invaded by a cavalry army at that
time. It is more probable that the horse was an import that became a status symbol for the elite
who were most likely to receive a ceremonial burial. The elite uji class made up the cavalry of the
period because they could afford the horse and equipment.

 

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Chinese, Korean, and Japanese scribes regularly wrote Wa or Yamato "Japan" with the Chinese character until the 8th century, when the Japanese found fault with it due to its offensive connotation, replacing it with "harmony, peace, balance". Retroactively, this character was adopted in Japan to refer to the country itself, often combined with the character , literally meaning "Great", so as to write the preexisting name Yamato (大和) (in a manner similar to e.g. 大清帝國 Great Qing Empire, 大英帝國 Greater British Empire). However, the pronunciation Yamato cannot be formed from the sounds of its constituent characters; it refers to a place in Japan and is speculated to originally mean "Mountain Gate" (山戸).[3] Such words which use certain kanji to name a certain Japanese word solely for the purpose of representing the word's meaning regardless of the given kanji's on'yomi or kun'yomi, a.k.a. jukujikun, is not uncommon in Japanese. Other original names in Chinese texts include Yamatai country (邪馬台国), where a Queen Himiko lived. When hi no moto, the indigenous Japanese way of saying "sun's origin", was written in kanji, it was given the characters 日本. In time, these characters began to be read using Sino-Japanese readings, first Nippon and later Nihon, although the two names are interchangeable to this day.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Names_of_Japan

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@Lion.Kanzen Nice refs! But that's a lot of Kofun/Asuka/Yamato period stuff, which belongs more in the Millennium AD period. To stay in-line with the timeframe of the vanilla game, we should focus on Jomon and Yayoi period Japan. Unless we're taking a different direction here?

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2 hours ago, Sundiata said:

@Lion.Kanzen Nice refs! But that's a lot of Kofun/Asuka/Yamato period stuff, which belongs more in the Millennium AD period. To stay in-line with the timeframe of the vanilla game, we should focus on Jomon and Yayoi period Japan. Unless we're taking a different direction here?

Jomon its too early. Yayoi its nice but still incomplete.

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2 hours ago, Lion.Kanzen said:

Jomon its too early.

Jomon goes up to 300 BC, so it's still within the right period for references, but yeah, they're culture starts very early

 

2 hours ago, Lion.Kanzen said:

Yayoi its nice but still incomplete.

Indeed... But it does make them more comparable to the Zapotecs and other potential future pre-colombian civs in many regards, which is interesting (no real navy, no cavalry, no iron). 

Personally I'm fine with the Kofun/Asuka/Yamato period, but it would be nice to use Jomon and Yayoi references for village and town phase, and "evolve" into Kofun Japan in city phase...

  

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39 minutes ago, Sundiata said:

Jomon goes up to 300 BC, so it's still within the right period for references, but yeah, they're culture starts very early

 

Indeed... But it does make them more comparable to the Zapotecs and other potential future pre-colombian civs in many regards, which is interesting (no real navy, no cavalry, no iron). 

Personally I'm fine with the Kofun/Asuka/Yamato period, but it would be nice to use Jomon and Yayoi references for village and town phase, and "evolve" into Kofun Japan in city phase...

  

Its about planning because even aren't  same ethnicity. 

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Similar to other peoples, among the Japanese territorial conflicts arose between local rulers. Some rulers gained in territory and some lost. Greater territory among the winners meant more wealth, more available manpower, bigger armies and more military strength. Competition among the kingdoms created insecurity, which inspired the belief in growth for the sake of power. A ruler had to keep growing or he would be swallowed by one who had. So among the rulers were attempts to expand, which produced more war.

One of the more successful ruling families was the Yamato. The Yamato family came to dominate the agriculturally productive plain in the southwest of what today is Japan. As elsewhere in the world of civilization and empire, those rulers whom the Yamato conquered remained as local lords and paid tribute to the Yamato ruler. The local lords were watched by territorial administrators, technical experts and scribes. A hierarchy of authority had developed, with the local lords remaining proud of their family.

A Yamato ruler called himself Tenno, heavenly ruler, and Yamato family members believed they were directly descended from Jimmu and the gods and that they ruled by divine right. The Yamato spread their rule northward onto the Kanto plain and to most other areas populated by the Yayoi-Japanese.

According to Japanese legend, during the 300s CE, the Yamato spread their rule to the southern coast of Korea, to an enclave they called Mimana. And legend claims that the Korean kingdoms of Paekche (Baekche) and Silla were soon paying the Yamato tribute – a claim Koreans scholars do not accept. [READER COMMENT]

Also in the 300s, it is claimed, more Koreans were moving to Japan: weavers, smiths, irrigation experts, and teachers of Chinese writing and Chinese arts. And the Koreans brought with them to Japan more ideas on Chinese law, medicine, science and social and political organization.

In the 400s, Japan built more complex irrigation systems, and Yamato emperors elevated various families to positions of responsibility for specific matters, such as the military, supervision of religion, technological projects and territorial administration. Yamato rule was developing toward a Chinese-style bureaucratic state. And in the mid-500s would come the Buddhism that had recently been adopted by Goguryeo (Koguryo) and Paekche.

Spoiler

From about 350, power shifted north to the Saki area, near the present city of Nara. The nature of the burial goods in the tombs constructed there, the legendary accounts in Kojiki and Nihon shoki, and records from the continent all indicate that this was a period of Yamato expansion throughout the archipelago and even into the Korean peninsula, where, as mentioned above, its armies were engaged in the warfare between the three Korean kingdoms on the peninsula. Although the rulers continued to worship Mount Miwa, the religious focus of the court seems to have been concentrated upon the Isonokami Shrine at Tenri, south of Nara. The rulers there seem to have been somewhat more military in nature than their Miwa predecessors, and archaeological findings suggest that the most treasured items of the Isonokami Shrine were in fact weapons—especially the so-called “seven-pronged sword” (shichishitō), which now is designated a National Treasure.

Thus, by the end of the 4th century, Yamato was a kingdom well settled on the Nara plain with considerable control over the peoples of the archipelago. It was in contact with Chinese rulers, exchanged diplomatic envoys with several of the kingdoms on the Korean peninsula, and was even strong enough to have sent an army against the powerful state of Koguryŏ, which then dominated the peninsula. Yamato was most closely associated with the southeastern kingdom of Paekche, whence came the “seven-pronged sword.” Contact with the mainland, although involving conflict, also encouraged a marked rise in standards of living in the archipelago, as many of the fruits of advanced Chinese civilization reached Japan via people from the peninsula. Weavers, smiths, and irrigation experts migrated to Japan, and the Chinese ideographic script also was introduced at that time, together with Confucian works written in this script. Claims by historians prior to World War II that Paekche paid “tribute” to Japan and that Japan conquered the southern tip of the peninsula where it established a “colony” called Mimana have since been largely discounted by historians in both Japan and Korea.

The Yamato court reached its peak in the early 5th century, during the second stage of its existence. Once again, there was a shift in the centre of power, this time directly westward to the provinces of Kawachi and Izumi (modern Ōsaka urban prefecture). The 5th century was one of spectacular development for Yamato, as evidenced by the enormous keyhole-shaped tombs in the suburbs of the modern Ōsaka region. The move into this region is thought to have resulted in a power shift either between or within clan federations. It is now customary to regard the 5th-century rulers as a new line, distinct from those of the Shiki and Saki areas.

What distinguishes the 5th-century tombs from earlier ones is both their enormous size—the tomb attributed to the semilegendary emperor Ōjin is some 1,380 feet (420 metres) in length—and their character. These rulers had access to great power in order to construct their tombs. It has been estimated that the construction of Ōjin’s tomb would have taken 1,000 labourers, working from morning to night, four years to complete. The goods associated with these tombs are far more military in nature than those found in the earlier tombs: iron swords, arrowheads, and tools; armour; and all the trappings of a mounted warrior culture. All this suggests that the 5th-century rulers represent a more military, secular line of leaders in comparison with the priestly kings of the earlier Yamato area.

While most historians regard the 5th-century rulers as representing a new line, there is disagreement over their origin. Some have postulated an invasion of continental “horse riders” who seized control in the archipelago and established a new line of rulers. Myths related to Ōjin’s birth on the Korean peninsula while his mother was supposedly leading Yamato armies there, the location of the centre of power at the port of Naniwa (modern Ōsaka), Ōjin’s arrival there by boat, and the awesome size of the tombs (which suggest excess slave labour available for their construction)—all these hint tantalizingly at a conquest theory. The consensus, however, still supports an indigenous shift in leaders relying on control of increased agricultural output and monopolizing superior military technology. From the court at Yamato, its rulers extended control along the Inland Sea and beyond, developing more sophisticated offices and units to control the peoples of the archipelago.

 

Mimana army (Yamato)

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Emperor Yuryaku

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Yūryaku was a 5th-century monarch and one of the five kings of Wa(Japan) who sent missions to China. He was born Prince Ōhatuse no Waka Takeru. After his elder brother Emperor Ankō was murdered, he won the struggle against his other brothers and became the new emperor with the reigning name Yūryaku (雄略天皇). His title at his own lifetime was certainly not tennō (emperor), but presumably Ōkimi and/or Sumeramikoto (治天下大王 - ameno****a shiroshimesu ōkimi, or sumera no mikoto, Great King who rules all under heaven) and/or king of Yamato (ヤマト大王/大君 - yamato ōkimi, Great King of Yamato).
The Liu Song court of China awarded Emperor Yūryaku (known to the Chinese as King Bu) the title of 使持節都督倭新羅任那加羅秦韓慕韓六国諸軍事安東太将軍倭王 (Supreme Military Commander of the Six States of Wa, Silla, Mimana, Gaya, Jinhan and Mahan, and General Pacifying the East and King of Wa.) However the power that the Yamato court of Japan held in Southern Korea is still considered controversial and unproven.
 

https://forums.civfanatics.com/resources/emperor-yūryaku-of-wa-yamato-japan.25545/

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In 399 AD Japan formed a military alliance with Kaya and Baekje in opposition to the growing power of Goguryeo and Silla and from then on the Japanese often dispatched military forces to protect Kaya's territorial integrity, possibly in exchange for iron or other goods.[19][20] The defeat of one such Japanese expedition to Kaya is described on the Gwanggaeto Stele constructed in 414 AD.[21] Japanese mercenaries were also allowed to serve in Korea, and the characteristically Japanese keyhole-shaped burial mounds which started to appear in Kaya and Paekche at the end of the 5th century are believed to be the tombs of those who died in Korea.[22] While the unity of the Kaya Confederacy was falling apart under pressure from neighboring states, one of the Kayan states, Ara Kaya, even formed a joint military mission with Japan in 540 AD which was staffed by Japanese officers.[10]

In 554 AD Japanese soldiers fought alongside the armies of Kaya and Paekche at the Battle of Kwansan Fortress.[10] The defeat of this alliance by Silla sealed the fate of Kaya which was conquered by Silla in 562 AD. By this time Paekche had already broken Kaya's monopoly on trade with Japan and would replace Kaya as Japan's most important conduit for foreign trade and mainland Asian culture

 

https://www.britannica.com/place/Japan/Rise-and-expansion-of-Yamato

 

Edited by Lion.Kanzen
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