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Imperial Romans

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No one doubts the primary weapon of the legionary was the gladius for close-in killing. Its probably also why he carried a body shield that provided maximum personal protection. As for the auxilia, I'm not sure whether it was the spear or the gladius that did the majority of the killing. Does Tacitus go into details at Mons Graupius?

Obviously the oval shield and spear were a good match, but why a spear at all, I wonder? Unless aucilia did radically different things on the battlefield. If the Romans had wanted less dangerous pila-less troops, they could have given them javelins and had them perform the same combat roles as the legionaries. I just wonder why the spear at all really, when it seems the javelin followed by a charge and sword fight seems the Roman norm during the Principate....


so answer was

I would say that it's to do with the role of the unit. Legionries are heavy infantry, meant for a pitched battle. Auxilia are multi-purpose troops, fighting on the battlefield, but also patrolling, skirmishing, policing.. Apparently, the hasta was more suited to that task than the pilum.
(That is, IF the pilum was limited only to the legions, there are voices that claim otherwise. But that is probably a different discussion).


Bonus
As for cavalry, there is no source for the use of a pilum with them. They seem to have been using either a hasta or lancea (spears both for thrusting as well as trowing) combined with iacula (short javelins for trowing).

http://www.romanarmytalk.com/rat/thread-22742.html?highlight=auxilia

Auxiliary specialised units

In the Republican period, the standard trio of specialised auxilia were Balearic slingers, Cretan archers and Numidian light cavalry. These functions, plus some new ones, continued in the 2nd century auxilia.

Numidian light cavalry

They were known as the equites Maurorum or Numidarum ("Moorish or Numidian cavalry"). On Trajan's Column, Mauri horsemen, depicted with long hair in dreadlocks, are shown riding their small but resilient horses bare-back and unbridled, with a simple braided rope round their mount's neck for control. They wear no body or head armour, carrying only a small, round leather shield. Their weaponry cannot be discerned due to stone erosion, but is known from Livy to have consisted of several short javelins.[115][116] Exceptionally fast and maneuverable, Numidian cavalry would harass the enemy by hit-and-run attacks, riding up and loosing volleys of javelins, then scattering faster than any opposing cavalry could pursue. They were superbly suited to scouting, harassment, ambush and pursuit, but in melee combat were vulnerable to cuirassiers.[117] It is unclear what proportion of the Numidian cavalry were regular auxilia units as opposed to irregular foederati units.[118]

About East Archers

Three distinct types of archers are shown on Trajan's Column: (a) with scalar cuirass, conical steel helmet and cloak; ( B) without armour, with cloth conical cap and long tunic; or © equipped in the same way as general auxiliary foot-soldiers (apart from carrying bows instead of javelins). The first type were probably Syrian or Anatolian units; the third type probably Thracian.[121] The standard bow used by Roman auxilia was the recurved composite bow, a sophisticated, compact and powerful weapon.[120]

Edited by Lion.Kanzen

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The Third type of Troops (Not Citizen, not Auxilia)

I Suggest other Bulding for them.

Irregular allied forces

Throughout the Principate period, there is evidence of ethnic units of barbari outside the normal auxilia organisation fighting alongside Roman troops. To an extent, these units were simply a continuation of the old client-king levies of the late Republic: ad hoc bodies of troops supplied by Rome's puppet petty-kings on the imperial borders to assist the Romans in particular campaigns. Some units, however, remained in Roman service for substantial periods after the campaign for which they were raised, keeping their own native leadership, attire and equipment and structure. These units were variously called by the Romans socii ("allies"), symmachiarii (from symmachoi, Greek for "allies") or foederati ("treaty troops" from foedus, "treaty"). One estimate puts the number of foederati in the time of Trajan at c. 11,000, divided into c. 40 numeri (units) of c. 300 men each. The purpose of employing foederati units was to use their specialist fighting skills.[123] Many of these would have been troops of Numidian cavalry (see light cavalry above).

The foederati make their first official appearance on Trajan's Column, where they are portrayed in a standardised manner, with long hair and beards, barefoot, stripped to the waist, wearing long trousers held up by wide belts and wielding clubs. In reality several different tribes supported the Romans in the Dacian wars. Their attire and weapons would have varied widely. The Column stereotypes them with the appearance of a single tribe, probably the most outlandish-looking, to differentiate them clearly from the regular auxilia.[124] Judging by the frequency of their appearance in the Column's battle scenes, the foederati were important contributors to the Roman operations in Dacia. Another example of foederati are the 5,500 captured Sarmatian cavalrymen sent by Emperor Marcus Aurelius (r. 161–180) to garrison a fort on Hadrian's Wall after their defeat in the Marcomannic Wars

Edited by Lion.Kanzen

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more vextra stuff.

As with much of the imperial army's organisation, it was Augustus who, drawing on the evolved but ad hoc practices of the Republican army, established systematic medical services for the army, with a formal medical hierarchy and the construction of large, fully staffed and well-supplied military hospitals (valetudinaria) in legionary bases e.g. the fully excavated hospital at Castra Vetera (Xanten, Rhineland

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Imperial_Roman_army

Edited by Lion.Kanzen

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I think leave foederati for Dominate Romans as their Mercenary Camp units.


Valetudinarium would make for great technology. Unlock garrison healing in barracks, auxiliary barracks, and army camp.

I already use Lanciarii as Elite skirmishers. "Legionary Guardsmen"

Edited by wowgetoffyourcellphone

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On ‎28‎/‎10‎/‎2015 at 10:43 PM, wowgetoffyourcellphone said:

I think leave foederati for Dominate Romans as their Mercenary Camp units.


Valetudinarium would make for great technology. Unlock garrison healing in barracks, auxiliary barracks, and army camp.

I already use Lanciarii as Elite skirmishers. "Legionary Guardsmen"

Better use basic as auxiliary with basic name.

Miles

Milites were the trained regular footsoldiers of ancient Rome. These men were the non-specialist regular soldiers that made up the bulk of a Legion's numbers. Alongside soldiering, they also performed guard duties, labour work, building and other non-combat roles. Milites would usually have to serve for several years before becoming eligible for training to become immunes and thus become specialists with better pay.

The Latin term eventually became synonymous with "soldier", a general term that, in Western Europe, became associated with the mounted knight, because they composed the professional military corps during the Early Medieval Era. The same term, however, could mean the infantry soldier (Milites Pedites). Other usages include the "Milites Templi", referring to the Knights Templar, or Milites Sancti Jacobi (Order of Santiago).

From the Latin root "Miles" derived words such as "Military" and "Militia".

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1 hour ago, wowgetoffyourcellphone said:

You mean we should write a book based on 0 A.D.? :)

Nope but isn't bad idea. more a manual. with history and world almanac.

 

I mean the soldier in color background scenery in black and white. and the big composition of the font.

Even can be nice a noir illustration.

ital7334-bw.jpeg

 

almaque.jpg

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jiren_dragon_ball_super_by_marvelmania-dbrcnnr.jpg

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Imperial Roman multipurpose structure from Kent, UK:

Agricultural building, Bathouse/sauna, and later extension possibly containing an internal Christian altar:

VGIQUGXW64FVUZ04Y4SE.jpg.e375362508de1b3bb1b34469bca653e7.jpg

WBB62SCRES2Q4O6HC0HS.jpg.1996f2a903c273ad60f0a43e8ea2a77b.jpg

https://www.kentonline.co.uk/faversham/news/delight-as-major-roman-building-unearthed-205026/

 

Quote

Archaeologists are celebrating the scale of an “amazing” 150ft-long Roman building uncovered in Faversham.

The structure - the largest of its kind in the county - was unearthed by the Kent Archaeological Field School (KAFS), which has now undertaken final excavation work on the site at Abbey Farm, off Abbey Fields.

Its location had been pinpointed during a field walk from Canterbury to Rochester several years ago, but only now has the scale and complexity of the building been realised.

Dr Paul Wilkinson, of KAFS, says it would have had several uses.

“What we found on stripping the topsoil off was a profound and amazing building - the largest Roman agricultural building found so far in Kent,” he said.

“It is absolutely enormous at 150ft long by 50ft wide.

“It was divided into zones of activity, so the west end was a bath house with furnace, and then as you moved to the east it turned more into the agricultural activity.

“The work has shown that the survival of the building was amazing, with stone walls, polished terracotta floors, underfloor hypocaust heating, all untouched, and covered by tons of ceramic roof tiles and the collapsed stone walls covering huge amounts of box flue tiles, which were used to direct hot air up the interior walls. Painted plaster from these walls is mostly white but the hot sauna room on the north side of the building had plaster walls decorated in green, red and yellow panels.

“In the fifth century, it had been extended another 15 metres, with what coud be an internal Christian altar.”

The building was investigated by more than 20 students, in what has been described as a “unique experience” by Dr Wilkinson.

The team’s next step will be to write a report, which will join documentation for other Roman villa estates in the historic environment record kept by Kent County Council.

“It’s an extremely exciting building,” Dr Wilkinson added. “It was in the landscape for at least 400 years, and had a variety of purposes.

“We are finding that because of investigation of the landscape taking place now prior to building of housing estates that the Romans were very thick on the ground indeed, and this was almost unknown of 20 years ago.

“We have found they had profound activity in the countryside and it was densely populated.”

 

Edited by Sundiata
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