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idanwin

===[Eyecandy]== Crucifixes

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I'm using the first archeological evidence to illustrate.

Right: The calcaneus of Yehohanon ben Hagkol, with transfixed nail. Left: A reconstruction of what the foot may have looked like around the time of death.

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Crucifixion seems to have originated in Persia, but the Romans created the practice as we think of it today, employing either a crux immissa (similar to the Christian cross) or a crux commissa (a T-shaped cross) made up of an upright post and a crossbar.  Generally, the upright post was erected first, and the victim was tied or nailed to the crossbar and then hoisted up.  There was usually an inscription nailed above the victim, noting his particular crime, and sometimes victims got a wooden support to sit or stand on. But Seneca, the Roman philosopher, wrote in 40AD that the process of crucifying someone varied greatly: "I see crosses there, not just of one kind but made in different ways: some have their victims with their head down to the ground, some impale their private parts, others stretch out their arms."

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The body of a man buried in northern Italy 2,000 years ago shows signs that he died after being nailed to a wooden cross, the method used for the execution of Jesus described in the Christian Bible.

Although crucifixion was a common form of capital punishment for criminals and slaves in ancient Roman times, the new finding is only the second time that direct archaeological evidence of it has been found.

A new study of the skeletal remains of the man, found near Venice in 2007, reveals a lesion and unhealed fracture on one of the heel bones that suggests his feet had been nailed to a cross.

The researchers from the universities of Ferrara and Florence in Italy say their findings aren't conclusive because of the poor condition of the bones and because the other heel bone is missing.

Nor have they found evidence that the body was nailed up by the wrists, the common method of Roman crucifixion described in the Bible as used in the execution of Jesus.

Unusually for a Roman-era burial, the body had been buried directly in the ground, instead of being placed in a tomb, and without any burial goods, the researchers said.

The researchers ran genetic and biological tests on the remains, finding that they were from a man of below-average height and slim stature who was between 30 and 34 years old when he died.

The lack of grave goods and the dead man's relatively small build suggested he may have been an underfed slave who was buried without the regular Roman funeral ceremonies — commonly part of the punishment for executed prisoners, the researchers said.

The scientists who studied the recent remains from Gavello said victims of Roman-era crucifixions were hard to identify because of the state of the ancient bones and the difficulties of making a scientific interpretation of the injuries.

Gualdi told Live Science that bones with these types of lesions were more easily fractured, difficult to preserve and hard to recognize. In addition, the metal crucifixion nails were often salvaged from a body after death.

The irregular burial of human remains at Gavello still presents many questions: "We cannot know if he was a prisoner, but the burial marginalization indicates that he probably was an individual deemed dangerous or defamed in the Roman society," Gualdi said.

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now we have two evidences.

https://www.livescience.com/62727-jesus-roman-crucifixion-found.html

https://www.forbes.com/sites/kristinakillgrove/2015/12/08/this-bone-provides-the-only-skeletal-evidence-for-crucifixion-in-the-ancient-world/#34f1652b476d

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It's not likely that a lot of evidence will be found, though, for a number of reasons:

  • Wooden crosses don't survive, as they degraded long ago or were re-used.
  • Victims of crucifixion were usually criminals and therefore not formally buried, just exposed or thrown into a river or trash heap. It's difficult to identify these bodies, and scavenging animals would have done further damage to the bones.
  • Crucifixion nails were believed to have magical or medicinal properties, so they were often taken from a victim. Without a nail in place, it becomes more difficult to tell crucifixion from animal scavengers' puncture marks.
  • For the most part, crucifixion involved soft tissue injuries that can't be seen on bone. Only if a person had nails driven through his bones or was subject to crurifragium would there be significant bony evidence of the practice.

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http://www.apologeticspress.org/apcontent.aspx?article=145

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https://www.biblicalarchaeology.org/daily/biblical-topics/crucifixion/roman-crucifixion-methods-reveal-the-history-of-crucifixion/

Edited by Lion.Kanzen

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